Reino judío de Septimania. Por Alberto Ruskolekier

En los primeros años de la era común, muchos judíos provenientes (entre otros lugares) de Judea,
septimania-En los primeros años de la era común, muchos judíos provenientes (entre otros lugares) de Judea,

En los primeros años de la era común, muchos judíos provenientes (entre otros lugares) de Judea, vivían en una zona de Francia. en una “Colonia” conocida con el nombre de “Carcaso”. Esta zona se conoce hoy en día con el nombre de “Carcasonne”, y su nombre deriva de la Colonia Judía de aquellos tiempos. Este lugar es una comuna francesa en el sur de Francia.

Esa zona de Francia se conocía en la antigüedad con el nombre de ”Septimania”. Este nombre deriva según una teoría a raíz de 7 ciudades que conformaban este lugar. Ellas son: Elne, Agde, Narbona, Lodeye, Beziers, Maguelonne y Nimes.

Aunque esto no sería exactamente así, porque esa provincia o zona tenía 8 ciudades si se incluye a “Carcaso” o “Carcasonne”.

Otra teoría adjudica el nombre de “Septimania“ al nombre antiguo de la ciudad de Béziers. Era la “Colonia Iulia Septimanorum Beaterrae“. Ese nombre hace referencia a que en esa zona estaban viviendo veteranos de la VII Legión Romana que Octaviano había instalado allí anteriormente.

Esa zona también es conocida con el nombre de” Occitania”. Actualmente es territorio francés y debe su nombre a la contracción de dos palabras. Una de ellas es por el nombre del idioma hablado que era el “doc” y la otra palabra es “tania” por la zona de “Aquitania” que correspondía a un ducado que se llamaba “Ducado de Aquitania” y de donde surge el nombre “Occitania”, y es una región en el suroeste de Francia.

En el siglo VIII, más precisamente en el año 714, los árabes invaden el Reino Visigodo, (1) cruzan los Pirineos e invaden “ Septimania”.

Leer más: Reino judío de Etiopía, Reino de Beta Israel, Reino de Simen. Por Alberto Ruskolekier

Ello provoca una lucha de los árabes contra los “Francos” (2), que era un pueblo que dominaba esa zona.

Los árabes son vencidos en la famosa batalla de Potiers en el año 732, por el gobernante “Franco” Carlos Martel , fundador de la dinastía Carolingia (3) que derrota al Emir Abderramán I, e impide que el Islam avance hacia Occidente.

No obstante, “Septimania” propiamente dicha no pudo ser capturada por Carlos Martel, y los árabes establecen una especie de reino moro-judío en esa zona que dura desde el año 714 hasta el año 759.

En el año 752, “Pipino El Breve”, hijo de Carlos Martel pone sitio a “Septimania” hasta el año 759 pero no puede conquistarla. La historia demuestra que “Pipino El Breve “ fue un hábil político porque finalmente hace un acuerdo con los judíos que vivían en la ciudad de Narbona (una de las ciudades de Septimania), a quienes les promete un “Principado Judío Independiente“ y un Rey propio si se rebelan contra los árabes. Como consecuencia de ese ofrecimiento, los judíos abren las puertas de Narbona, permitiendo que los sitiadores de “Septimania” se apoderen de esta ciudad y los árabes sean derrotados. Pipino El Breve, cumple la promesa efectuada a los judíos y finalmente en el año 768 se establece el “ Reino Judío Independiente de Septimania” o “Reino Judío de Septimania en Occitania “ que dura hasta el siglo X o sea casi 150 años aproximadamente.

Este ”Reino Judío de Septimania” tenía como Capital la ciudad de Narbona y se extendió hacia otras regiones y dio inicio a lo que los historiadores españoles denominaron la “Marca Hispánica” con criterio tergiversado, ya que el verdadero nombre de “Marca Hispánica” es “Estado Judío” ya que así está nombrado en el Tratado firmado entre Carlomagno (hijo de Pipino) con el Emir de Córdoba en el año 812.

Septimania fue un “Reino Judío Independiente” que estuvo gobernado por condes independientes de origen judío. Tenían la administración de este Reino, cobraban impuestos, se aplicaba un sistema legal judío, gozaban de la protección real y establecieron una sucesión Davídica.

El primer Nasí o Príncipe judío de este Reino fue el Rabino Natronai Makhir que era antes el Exilarca de los judíos de Bagdad y fue enviado a esa zona por el Califa de Bagdad. Los judíos de Septimania lo aclamaban con el nombre de Messiah Ben Ephraim y él toma el nombre de Theodoric y los árabes lo llaman Fakir Theodoric.

El escudo de armas que representaba a Natronai Makhir era el “León de Juda”. Respetaba el Shabat y los ritos judíos.

Los registros históricos indican que Natronai Makhir se casó con la hermana de Pipino, cuyo nombre era Aida (Aldana o Auda Martel según otros historiadores). Era una mujer cristiana y tía de Carlomagno. En agradecimiento a Pipino, habría referencias históricas que los rabinos de esa época le habrían cedido la sucesión Davídica del Sacro Imperio Romano a su hijo Carlomagno.

Como consecuencia de la unión de Natronai Makhir con Aida, nace un hijo varón llamado Guilhelm de Toulouse o Guillermo de Toulouse. Fue posteriormente coronado “Rey de los Franceses”. Guillermo también crea la “Academia Judaica de San Guillermo” en el año 791 y se casa con una mujer de nombre Guiburga o Guitburga, con quien tiene 4 hijos: Bernard, Bera, Heriberto y Teodorico.

El hijo menor de Guillermo de Toulouse, Bernard, se casa con una mujer judía pariente suya, de nombre N d Albi. Para los judíos, el sucesor de la casa de David era el Nasí “Bernard de Septimania”.

Bernard de Septimania gobernó como “Conde de Barcelona “ entre 826 y 832 por primera vez y como “Conde de Barcelona y de Tolosa“ por segunda vez entre el año 835 al 844. El Reino Judío de Septimania había crecido en influencia y llegó a abarcar en el sur de los Pirineos, Nimes, Rosellón y los condados catalanes, como ser: Gerona, Osona, Urgell, Pallars Ribagorza y Barcelona. O sea, que Cataluña tiene una influencia judía enorme en su historia.

Este “Reino Judío de Septimania” desaparece con la finalización de la dinastía Carolingia.

Quisiera terminar este ensayo con una parte del poema del genial Jorge Luis Borges y que habla con una estética maravillosa acerca del pueblo de Israel.

……“¿Qué otras cosas eras, Israel, sino esa nostalgia,

sino esa voluntad de salvar entre las inconstantes formas del tiempo

tu viejo libro mágico, tus liturgias,

tu soledad con Dios”………

Conclusiones:

No se puede entender la historia de Europa, tampoco la historia del mundo, sin la historia del pueblo judío.

Lo que es increíble es que muchos europeos y países europeos se expresan contra lo judío. A pesar de que parte de su esencia o identidad proviene del pueblo judío. Incluso corrió dentro de las venas de algunos de sus gobernantes importantes de la historia, la sangre de Israel. El espíritu del pueblo judío estampó en la historia de muchos pueblos su cultura.

El impacto del pueblo judío en la humanidad es tal, que ha tallado no solo su historia sino que le dio forma al presente.

Por supuesto que no fue el único pueblo que lo hizo, pero es innegable su contribución a la historia de la humanidad.

El pueblo judío sigue estando presente en este mundo. A pesar del escarnio que sufrió a través de los tiempos, y este pueblo sigue siendo “hermoso como un león al mediodía”. (J.L.Borges).

Aclaraciones:
  1. Pueblos “Godos”, eran pueblos originarios de Suecia, que se dividieron en el siglo IV en dos ramas. Una de ellas eran los Visigodos y la otra eran los Ostrogodos. Los Visigodos se encontraban asentados en la actual Francia y en la Península Ibérica y eran “federados”  del Imperio Romano. Los Ostrogodos se encontraban principalmente en los Balcanes, Ucrania y Bielorusia.
  1. “Francos”, eran un pueblo bárbaro germánico que habitaba el Norte de Europa. Estaban asentados a lo largo del Río Rin y se expandieron entre otras tierras a Galia (actual Francia). La palabra franco está relacionada con “libre” ya que no se sometían a ningún Imperio. También puede estar relacionada con “libre viajero”.
  1. La dinastía “Carolingia” debe su nombre a Carlos Martel, vencedor de la batalla de Poitiers en el año 732 (mencionada anteriormente) y se refiere a los reyes y emperadores “francos” de dicho linaje que gobernaron Europa Occidental entre los siglos VII y X.

Alberto Ruskolekier. Periodista-Escritor

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