A 134 años del nacimiento de David Ben Gurión: «En Israel para ser realista, tenes que creer en los milagros»

David Ben-Gurión – líder sionista, primer Primer Ministro y el que duró más tiempo en el cargo. Nació un día como hoy en el año 1886, como David Green en Plonsk, Polonia. Se educó en una escuela hebrea fundada por su padre, un ardiente sionista. A los 17 años de edad Ben-Gurión se unió al grupo sionista socialista Poaléi Zión.

En 1906 Ben-Gurión inmigró a la Tierra de Israel, trabajó como obrero en asentamientos agrícolas, se interiorizó en la política y la polémica sionista. Ayudó al establecimiento del grupo judío de autodefensa Hashomer. En 1912 empezó a estudiar Derecho en Estambul, pero el estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundial condujo a su deportación, por parte de las autoridades otomanas. Junto con la de otros prominentes sionistas.

Ben-Gurión pasó los años de la guerra en Estados Unidos, donde se casó con Paula Monbesz, una compañera sionista. Fue activo en la formación del ala estadounidense del sionismo laborista. Regresó a Palestina como soldado de la Legión Judía, una unidad del ejército británico creada por Zeev Jabotinsky.

Leer más: Borges y David Ben Gurión, una relación marcada por la admiración a los griegos y a la cultura judía

En la década del 20, Ben-Gurión fue electo secretario general de la Histadrut – Confederación General del Trabajo, función que él consideraba como una potencial base de poder para la realización de los objetivos sionistas.

Ben-Gurión jugó luego un papel preponderante en la fusión de Ajdut Haavodá y Hapoel Hatzair en Mapai, que se convirtió en el partido de gobierno durante las primeras décadas del estado, con Ben-Gurión a la cabeza. Su actitud hacia el socialismo era pragmática, y ocupó el puesto clave de Presidente del Ejecutivo de la Agencia Judía – el “cuasi gobierno” de los judíos en Palestina – función que ejerció hasta 1948, cuando se estableció el Estado de Israel.

Durante estos años, Ben-Gurión guió el curso de la historia sionista y moldeó el carácter del estado judío. Basándose en una plataforma política que combinaba visión con pragmatismo, Ben-Gurión abandonó la política sionista oficial de cautela y gradualismo, para adoptar una firme línea activista.

En 1948, como jefe del Gobierno Provisional, David Ben-Gurión proclamó el establecimiento del Estado de Israel y el comienzo del “crisol de los exilios”

En los primeros años del estado, el fuerte y carismático liderazgo de Ben-Gurión condujo a olas de inmigración masiva que duplicaron la población del país. El dirigió las empresas de absorción, invirtiendo la mayor parte de los limitados recursos de la nación en la integración de los inmigrantes.

Leer más: David Ben-Gurión, el hombre que logró su sueño. Por Alfredo Serra

En la arena internacional, Ben-Gurión puso su carrera política en juego para lograr la aprobación del muy controvertido acuerdo de reparaciones con Alemania Occidental.

En 1953, agotado por años de intenso servicio público, Ben-Gurión renunció al gobierno por dos años. Se estableció en el kibutz Sde Boker en el Néguev, sirviendo de ejemplo personal a la juventud israelí. Luego de las elecciones de 1955, volvió a ser Primer Ministro.

En 1963 Ben-Gurión renunció una vez más al gobierno, en protesta por los aspectos morales de un fiasco de inteligencia ocurrido en 1954 – poniendo fin a casi tres décadas de liderazgo, incluyendo 13 años como Primer Ministro del Estado de Israel.

Ben-Gurión hizo un intento de regreso a la vida pública en 1965. Apoyando una reforma electoral y la formación de un nuevo partido, Rafi, que obtuvo sólo 10 escaños en las elecciones a la Knéset de ese año. Permaneció como miembro de la Knéset durante otros cinco años, retirándose de la vida pública en 1970, a los 84 años de edad. Ben-Gurión – una de las figuras más influyentes en el curso del sionismo moderno – falleció el 1 de Diciembre de 1973 y fue sepultado en Sde Boker.

Fuente: MFA.gov.il


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