El problema de los beduinos en Israel

Al finalizar la Guerra de Independencia de Israel la población beduina del desierto del Negev, (que cubre todo el sur de Israel) contaba con sólo 11,000 personas. Hoy viven en Israel 200,000 beduinos, la mayoría de los cuales viven en el Negev, y los otros en el norte y centro del país.

En el año 1954 los beduinos recibieron la ciudadanía israelí, y hoy cerca de 2,000 hacen servicio militar.

Tradicionalmente los beduinos son tribus nómadas, que viven dispersos en el Negev, en pueblos informales construidos sin permiso en tierras que pertenecen al Estado. Muchos de ellos están situados en zonas donde el ejército hace práctica de tiro, o en reservas naturales. Aunque en Israel la poligamia está prohibida, los beduinos son todos polígamos, y consideran que un hombre que tiene una sola mujer es débil e impotente. El Estado cierra deliberadamente los ojos a esta situación.

Las familias beduinas reciben cientos de millones de shekels del gobierno con el pretexto de divorcios ficticios (las mujeres continúan viviendo con el marido) para que el gobierno les de beneficios sociales.

Los beduinos, no sólo en Israel sino en todo el Medio Oriente, viven de acuerdo a las leyes de sus tribus, y no aceptan ni respetan las leyes del Estado.

Hay problemas adicionales causados por su cultura. Los beduinos generalmente se casan con familiares, lo cual causa que predominen enfermedades genéticas, cuyo tratamiento es financiado por el Estado.

Otro problema cultural son los asesinatos de mujeres para «limpiar el honor de la familia» cuando ellos consideran que fue mancillado por el comportamiento de la mujer. Generalmente los asesinos nos son castigados porque ningún beduino atestigua contra otro.

Desde 1967 el Estado ha tratado, con éxito parcial, de urbanizar a los beduinos. La ciudad beduina más grande, no sólo de Israel sino de todo el Medio Oriente, es Rahat, con 55,000 habitantes. Se calcula que el 50% de los beduinos viven en ciudades, alrededor de las cuales se están construyendo nuevas zonas industriales para eliminar el desempleo, ocasionado por el hecho de que sólo un 4% tiene educación secundaria y menos del 1% tiene título universitario…

Los beduinos reciben del Estado educación y servicios médicos gratis. También reciben generosos beneficios monetarios por cada niño, lo cual ha contribuido a un alto índice de nacimientos (muchas mujeres beduinas tienen más de 10 hijos, y hay casos con más de 15 hijos) y al constante aumento de su población.

El plan del gobierno, llamado Prawer-Begin por sus proponentes, (Begin es un respetado político hijo del ex Primer Ministro Menajem Begin) es mudar a unos 40,000 beduinos nómadas que viven en pueblos de construcción ilegal, donde no reciben servicios del gobierno, a ciudades construidas especialmente para ellos en el Negev con toda la infraestructura necesaria, incluyendo colegios, clínicas, oficinas de correo, etc. Parte del plan es darles compensación monetaria por las áreas donde estaban viviendo, a pesar de que no hay documentos que demuestran su propiedad, lo cual ocasionó que todas las demandas legales hechas por los beduinos han sido rechazadas por las cortes

Esto inmediatamente ha sido utilizado por los enemigos de Israel como un pretexto para criticar a Israel. A pesar de que los beduinos son ciudadanos israelíes y de que el problema de este choque cultural no tiene nada que ver con el problema israelí-palestino, organizaciones internacionales de pro-palestinos y activistas de izquierda han manifestado su condena «a la expulsión y discriminación sistemática de los beduinos» y exigido que «Israel respete los derechos de los beduinos».

Los parlamentarios árabes en la Knesset están incitando a toda la población árabe de Israel (20% de la población) a oponerse con demostraciones violentas al plan del gobierno.


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