Rosh Hashaná: El día del juicio

Rosh HaShana es el comienzo del nuevo año judío. En pocas horas iniciaremos el año 5780.

Comenzar un nuevo año es, por supuesto, un motivo de celebración y alegría. Es por eso que durante la primera y la segunda noche de Rosh haShana, las noches del 29 y 30 de Septiembre respectivamente, realizamos una ceremonia especial o «Seder» donde deseamos unos a otros tener un año de paz, prosperidad y alegría.

Pero para el pueblo judío un nuevo año también (o principalmente) significa un evento serio. Al punto de que los Sabios hablaron más, mucho más, sobre los aspectos serios de Rosh haShaná que sobre los aspectos celebratorios de Rosh haShaná.

Los rabinos de Mishná explicaron que Rosh haShaná es nada menos que el día del juicio (יום הדין). ¿A qué juicio se refieren los Sabios? Al más significativo: a evaluar si estoy haciendo con mi tiempo y con mi vida lo que se supone que debo hacer.

¿Y adivina quién me va a estar juzgando? Dios. Y yo mismo

El juicio comienza la primera mañana de Rosh haShaná, el 1 de Tishrí, que este año corresponde al lunes 30 de Septiembre. Cuando entramos a la sinagoga debemos imaginarnos que estamos ingresando en la corte y que estamos a punto de ser juzgados. Nuestro primer desafío, probablemente el más difícil, es identificar al Juez. Él está allí, pero no puede ser visto de una manera normal. Para «ver» al juez, para sentir Su presencia, debemos usar la ayuda de nuestras Tefilot, plegarias y oraciones. Cuando rezamos en Rosh Hashaná vamos a notar una y otra vez la enfatización de una palabra clave: “MELEJ”, que en hebreo significa “Rey” (o MALKENU, nuestro Rey). «Rey» en el contexto de Rosh haShana significa «Juez». En Rosh HaShana pensamos en Dios como el Rey / Juez. Juzgar a sus súbditos era uno de los roles principales de los reyes de Israel (pensemos, por ejemplo, en el juicio del rey Salomón). El Rey era la figura judicial más elevada y la instancia final. Por lo tanto, desde Rosh haShana y hasta el final de Yom Kipur, cuando la sentencia definitiva será emitida, nos referiremos a Dios como nuestro Juez.

El evento más especial de Rosh haShana también tiene como objetivo ayudarnos a identificar al Juez y hacernos sentir que estamos frente a Él. Me refiero a la voz del Shofar, el cuerno del carnero. En el antiguo Israel, el Shofar se hacia escuchar frente a todo el pueblo cuando un nuevo Rey era coronado. Al escuchar el Shofar debemos sentir que estamos parados frente a Dios, y que Él ahora nos está juzgando. Esta es la manera en la que individualmente «coronamos» a Dios, lo aceptamos como nuestro Juez.

Si NO nos tomamos esta idea a la ligera, al escuchar el Shofar podríamos sentirnos abrumados, paralizados y conmocionados. Porque nos damos cuenta de que no podemos fingir ni ocultarle nada a Dios. Porque Él nos conoce mejor que nosotros mismos.

Si esto sucede, si lloramos, nos emocionamos y sentimos escalofríos al escuchar el Shofar, significa que el Shofar está funcionando bien, y que estamos reaccionando correctamente a su penetrante sonido.

Cuando se escucha el Shofar no tenemos que pedir perdón, confesar o arrepentirnos (y ni hace falta mencionar que en ese momento no debemos solicitar in pedirle nada a Dios). Todo eso es extremadamente importante, pero este no es el momento.

Maimónides explica claramente que la misión del Shofar es ”despertarnos”, es decir, su sonido nos tiene que ayudar a tomar conciencia de que estamos siendo juzgados, y especialmente que Dios es Quien preside la corte.

El Shofar declara que HaShem es nuestro Rey y Juez ( ‘להמליך את ה) y es nuestro deber hacer el mayor esfuerzo posible por visualizar (¡sin visualizar a Dios!) que estamos frente a Él, frente a Su Trono, y sentir que Él nos está llamando a comparecer en Su corte.

Una vez que nos despertemos, eventualmente, reconoceremos nuestras faltas, las confesaremos, las repararemos y nos transformaremos en mejores personas.

Fuente: Aurora

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