Disminuye la población judía de Europa

La población judía en Europa ha sobrevivido siete décadas desde el fin del Holocausto. En los años transcurridos desde entonces, el número de judíos europeos ha seguido disminuyendo por una variedad de razones. Ahora, la preocupación por el antisemitismo renovado en el continente ha llevado a los líderes judíos a hablar de un nuevo «éxodo» de la región.
Todavía hay más de un millón de judíos (1.400.000) que viven en Europa, de acuerdo con estimaciones del Centro de Investigación Pew de 2010. Pero ese número se ha reducido significativamente en las últimas décadas – más dramáticamente en Europa del Este y los países que conforman la antigua Unión Soviética, de acuerdo a la investigación histórica de Sergio Della Pergola, de la Universidad Hebrea de Jerusalén.
En 1939, había 16,6 millones de judíos en todo el mundo, y la mayoría de ellos – 9,5 millones, o 57% – vivían en Europa, según las estimaciones de Della Pergola. Para el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en 1945, la población judía de Europa se había reducido a 3,8 millones, o el 35% de los 11 millones de judíos en el mundo. Cerca de 6 millones de judíos europeos fueron asesinados durante el Holocausto, según estimaciones comunes.
Desde entonces, la población judía mundial – estimada por Pew Research en 14 millones a partir de 2010 – se ha incrementado, pero todavía es más pequeña de lo que era antes del Holocausto. Y en las décadas siguientes desde 1945, la población judía en Europa ha seguido disminuyendo. En 1960, era de aproximadamente 3,2 millones; en 1991, cayó a 2 millones, según las estimaciones de DellaPergola. Ahora, hay cerca de 1,4 millones de judíos en Europa – sólo el 10% de la población judía del mundo, y el 0,2% de la población total de Europa.
La medición de la población judía, especialmente en lugares como Europa y Estados Unidos, donde los judíos son una pequeña minoría, está llena de dificultades. Esto se debe a la complejidad tanto para medir pequeñas poblaciones como a la misma identidad judía, que puede ser definida por el origen étnico o la religión. Como resultado, las estimaciones varían, pero las cifras recientes del Pew Research son similares a las reportadas por Della Pergola, uno de los principales expertos del mundo sobre la demografía judía.
La población judía en Europa del Este, que una vez fue grande y vibrante casi ha desaparecido. Della Pergola estima que había 3,4 millones de judíos en las partes europeas de la Unión Soviética a partir de 1939. Muchos fueron asesinados en el Holocausto, y otros se trasladaron a Israel o a otros lugares. Hoy en día, una pequeña fracción de la población de las ex repúblicas soviéticas – un estimado de 310.000 personas – son judíos.
Tendencias similares se han producido en los países de Europa del Este que se encontraban fuera de la URSS, entre ellos Polonia, Hungría, Rumania y varias otras naciones. En conjunto, eran el hogar de cerca de 4,7 millones de judíos en 1939, pero ahora hay probablemente menos de 100.000 judíos en todos estos países juntos.
Gran parte de la disminución de la posguerra ha sido el resultado de la emigración a Israel, que declaró su independencia como Estado judío en 1948. La población judía de Israel ha pasado de alrededor de medio millón en 1945 a 5,6 millones en 2010. Pero hay otros posibles factores en la disminución de los judíos europeos, incluidos los matrimonios mixtos y la asimilación cultural.
Además, las poblaciones judías no han disminuido de manera uniforme en todos los países europeos. Por ejemplo, se estima que había alrededor de 310 mil judíos en Francia en 2010, una cifra que Della Pergola estima como similar a la de 1939 (320.000) aunque informes recientes han indicado un aumento de la emigración judía de Francia.
El Reino Unido también sigue teniendo una importante población judía (alrededor de 280.000 en 2010, por debajo de la estimación de DellaPergola de 345.000 en 1939). Pero un nuevo informe publicado esta semana encontró un nivel récord de antisemitismo en el Reino Unido, con más de 1.000 incidentes antisemitas registrados en 2014.

Fuente: Pew Research.

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