Los puntos frágiles del acuerdo con Irán. Por Prof. George Chaya

A medida que las disputas sobre el -llamado- acuerdo nuclear con Irán continúan tanto en Teherán como en Washington, cada vez es más claro que el día que el presidente Barack Obama no esté a cargo el acuerdo no sobrevivirá más allá de su presidencia.

Una situación similar está tomando forma del lado iraní. La facción de Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, de la cual el presidente Hassan Rouhani es miembro, espera utilizar el acuerdo como plataforma de lanzamiento para la conquista de los principales centros de poder. Sin embargo, el acuerdo puede llegar a ser la ruina política del clan Rafsanjani.

El “acuerdo” tiene demasiados defectos fundamentales y no goza del apoyo de las dos naciones involucradas, tanto Obama como Rouhani sabían que su acuerdo no ganaría el apoyo de sus respectivos poderes legislativos, de allí que por estas horas trazan un plan para sortear esos defectos y los problemas que representan.

Obama accedió a que el Congreso revise el “acuerdo”, pero no como un tratado y solo después de que recibió una “apariencia de dudosa legalidad” a través de una resolución aprobada contrarreloj por el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas.

Ya sea que los votos del Congreso alcancen para ratificar o no el “acuerdo”, el compromiso de Estados Unidos con la resolución de la ONU se mantendrá. La votación del Congreso casi seguro irá en contra del acuerdo y sería una señal de que Estados Unidos como nación y país no lo quiere ni lo deseaba, menos aún en los términos que acordó su presidente.

Obama parece haberse quedado a mitad de camino. Su trato se destaca en nada más que una orden ejecutiva, un dispositivo constitucional por el cual el presidente podría imponer ciertas medidas. Sin embargo, una orden ejecutiva emitida por un presidente podría ser cancelada por otro.

Algunos off-the-record de reuniones estadounidenses e iraníes muestran que ambos presidentes utilizaron prácticamente el mismo chip discursivo desde el principio.

En una entrevista fascinante, la semana pasada, el antiguo ministro de Relaciones Exteriores de Irán, Ali Akbar Salehi, reveló al periódico libanes As-Saffir que durante la presidencia de Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, en las reuniones secretas en Omán, Teherán puso cinco condiciones previas para el inicio de las conversaciones con los Estados Unidos. “Nos sorprendió cuando Obama aceptó todas ellas”, recuerda Salehi. Y eso fue antes de que John Kerry -de una larga historia de contactos con Teherán, que incluyó reuniones con el expresidente Mohammad Jatamí en Davos- se convirtiera en secretario de Estado.

Durante las largas negociaciones de Lausana y, finalmente las de Viena, los equipos iraníes y estadounidenses estuvieron casi del mismo lado para convencer a los otros miembros del G5 + 1 para suavizar sus posiciones con Irán.

El viceministro de Relaciones Exteriores iraní, Abbas Araqchi, citó un número de ocasiones en las que Kerry luchó favorablemente contra los diplomáticos europeos para hacerlos cambiar de idea sobre la posición de Irán. Una ocasión trascendental fue cuando los franceses y los británicos insistieron en que Irán se comprometa formalmente a no financiar y armar al grupo terrorista libanés Hezbollah. “Naturalmente, nos negamos”, dijo Araqchi.

En otra ocasión, Rusia estaba presionando para que la prohibición de ventas de armas a Irán sea levantada de inmediato. Aunque Irán no quería esto, presumiblemente debido a que sentía que se enfrentaría a la presión de comprar armas a Moscú, pues con China como proveedor ya estaba cubierto. El ministro de Relaciones Exteriores ruso, Sergey Lavrov, expresó su sorpresa cuando el ministro de Relaciones Exteriores iraní, Mohammad Javad Zarif y Kerry “se unieron para mantener la prohibición”, aunque con modificaciones menores.

En otra ocasión, recordó el director general político del Ministerio de Exteriores iraní, Hamid Baeedi-Nezhad, que formó parte del equipo negociador, Kerry se puso del lado de Irán para derrotar a británicos y franceses, que insistían en que la prohibición de la venta de aviones a Teherán permaneciera en vigor por cinco años más. “Todo el asunto se resolvió cuando Kerry dio su palabra a favor nuestro”, dijo Baeedi-Nezhad.

Según Araqchi, también Kerry se puso del lado de Irán en el rechazo de una demanda por parte de la Unión Europea para prohibirle a Irán ayudar a Bashar Al-Assad a matar más sirios. Kerry se mantuvo firme en que las conversaciones solo debían centrarse en la cuestión nuclear.

De todas formas, el equipo iraní falló en un punto: persuadir a Alemania en cancelar las órdenes de detención dictadas contra cuatro funcionarios iraníes, incluyendo a Rafsanjani, por ordenar el asesinato de los líderes kurdos iraníes en Berlín en la década de los noventa. Los alemanes insistieron en que su Poder Judicial era independiente y que no podían cancelar sus decisiones.

Las conversaciones no tuvieron tanto tiempo, porque no había desacuerdo sobre cuestiones clave. Una vez que los Estados Unidos acordaron permitir a Irán a mantener su capacidad nuclear, las otras cuestiones eran fáciles de tratar. Las conversaciones tuvieron tanto tiempo porque Kerry y Zarif, trabajando a menudo juntos, estaban tratando de encontrar un lenguaje que pueda ocultar los verdaderos problemas y poner de relieve los periféricos. Kerry quiso engañar al Congreso de Estados Unidos; Zarif quiere hacer lo propio con el Majlis islámico en Teherán.

En su entusiasmo por conseguir cualquier acuerdo, Obama revocó la disposición constitucional en virtud de la cual un tratado necesita una mayoría de dos tercios del Congreso para entrar en vigor. Por ello, es muy posible que el “acuerdo” sufra una crisis de validez de identidad constitucional. Un voto negativo del Congreso podría retrasar su aplicación, pero la opción Obama-Kerry se basa en que el presidente haga uso de su derecho de veto.

Por el lado de la facción iraní, Rafsanjani lo ha hecho mejor aún, no ha proporcionado una versión oficial persa del “tratado” y parece decidido a ignorar el artículo 72 de la Constitución de la República Islámica y así aprobar el “acuerdo” sin informarlo públicamente.

Como sea, al día de hoy, Teherán ni siquiera ha aceptado la nueva resolución del Consejo de Seguridad la ONU y, con ello ha propiciado un nuevo paso atrás -cercano al ridículo- para sus socios Obama-Kerry.

Por Prof. George Chaya. Es consultor experto en Oriente Medio en relaciones internacionales, seguridad y prevención del terrorismo. Es autor de «La Yihad Global, el terrorismo del siglo XXI», entre otros libros. Además, es columnista especializado en Oriente Medio del diario La Razón de Madrid.

Fuente: Infobae

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