El Muro de los Lamentos, campo de batalla de las corrientes judías

El Muro de las Lamentos se convirtió en el nuevo escenario de la pugna religiosa entre ultra ortodoxos y reformistas a raíz de un plan para permitir el rezo igualitario en una sección del vestigio más importante del judaísmo.

Cuando en enero pasado, y tras años de negociaciones, el Gobierno anunció un plan que abría el camino a construir una plataforma junto al lugar más importante de oración judía para que corrientes no ortodoxas pudieran rezar y celebrar rituales, muchos lo consideraron un símbolo de unidad.

El proyecto fue acogido con beneplácito por los integrantes de la diáspora judía, especialmente en EEUU, mayoritariamente no ultra ortodoxa, pues suponía el fin del control que hasta hoy tiene sobre el lugar esa corriente.

En virtud del plan, miembros del judaísmo reformista, conservador y grupos como «Mujeres del Muro», que llevan 27 años luchando por el rezo sin división por sexos, podrían disponer finalmente de un lugar frente al antiguo paredón conformado por enormes bloques de piedra.

Pero, transcurridos seis meses, el plan aún no se ha puesto en marcha y los representantes de esas corrientes temen que el Gobierno de Biniamín Netanyahu esté dilatando su implementación presionado por las formaciones ultra ortodoxas que forman su coalición.

El “Muro Occidental” o “Kotel” en hebreo, también conocido en el mundo gentil como “Muro de los Lamentos”, es el lugar más cercano al lugar más sagrado del judaísmo -el sancta sanctorum del Monte del Templo-, y remanente de la muralla que rodeaba el Segundo Templo de Jerusalén, erigido por Herodes alrededor del año 20 antes de la era cristiana.

Uno de los puntos que más ampollas levanta el plan gubernamental entre la ultra ortodoxia es el hecho de que proyecta una única entrada para las diferentes áreas de rezo: la ortodoxa existente, que separa a hombres y mujeres, y la zona pluralista, en la que no habrá esa división.

«En Israel existe un monopolio en los servicios religiosos por parte de los ultra ortodoxos. Pero creemos que si se aplica una nueva visión en el ‘Kotel’, será el primer paso para romperlo», dice la directora del Centro de Acción Religiosa de Israel, vinculado al Movimiento Reformista, y rabina Noa Satat.

Añade que «el acuerdo fijaba un marco claro de tiempo y cuándo debía aplicarse» y se ha visto aplazado por «algunos condicionantes técnicos» en el lugar donde se debía abrir la nueva sección, frente al denominado Arco de Robinson.

«Somos conscientes de que no ha habido progresos y estamos en un punto donde las negociaciones están paralizadas y debemos presionar más», adelanta Satat, que asegura que el actual estado de cosas les empuja a llevar a cabo acciones legales.

Entres sus planes figura una demanda ante la Corte Suprema «hacia finales del verano» para lograr el objetivo de tener un lugar de culto igualitario alternativo.

Parte del descontento viene originado por las declaraciones que hizo en marzo el ministro del Interior, Aryeh Deri, líder del partido ultra-ortodoxo sefardí Shas, al asegurar que el plan «había sido archivado» y amenazó con abandonar el Gobierno si se ponía en práctica.

Ante la aparente paralización del proyecto, los grupos no ortodoxos han participado en rezos pluralistas en la plaza aledaña del Muro de las Lamentos, en la mayor parte de las ocasiones soportando el acoso de ultra ortodoxos.

En otra muestra de fuerza, el rabino jefe sefardí de Jerusalén, Shlomo Amar, dirigió una sesión de rezos el mes pasado en la zona destinada a los rituales igualitarios, donde se levantaron mamparas provisionales para separar a hombres y mujeres.

«Todo el ‘Kotel’ está embebido de santidad y fue entregado al pueblo de Israel por Dios», señaló a sus acólitos el prominente rabino, contrario al plan porque en su opinión, «dividir el Muro daña la santidad del lugar, la unidad de la nación y causará lágrimas a las generaciones venideras».

El rabino del Muro de los Lamentos, Shmuel Rabinovich, manifestó su oposición a la nueva sección y a los rezos en la aledaña plaza norte.

Pese a que Netanyahu reiteró su compromiso con la aplicación del acuerdo, unos esfuerzos en los que está involucrada la Agencia Judía, la disputa está servida.

«Si este acuerdo no se pone en marcha producirá un colapso y una gran brecha ente la diáspora judía y el Estado de Israel», advirtió recientemente el rabino Rick Jacobs, presidente de la Unión para el Judaísmo Reformista.

Fuente: Aurora

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