Comenzó Sucot: la fiesta de las cabañas

Sucot es uno de los Shalosh Regalim (tres festividades de peregrinaje) establecidas en la Torá, conocida como la fiesta de las cabañas, debido a que la palabra hebrea suca (sucot en plural) significa cabaña, (una construcción precaria con techo vegetal que debe permitir el paso de la luz).

Sucot comienza el 15 de Tishri y se prolonga por siete días, de los cuales es Iom Tob (fiesta completa) el primer día en Eretz Israel y el primer y segundo día en la diáspora, denominándose los días restantes Jol Amoed, que se puede traducir como de media fiesta pues no rigen las prohibiciones de los días festivos (viajar, trabajar, etc.)..

La Torá establece “Siete días viviréis en sucot. para que vuestros descendientes sepan que en sucot he hecho morar a los hijos de Israel cuando los saqué de la tierra de Egipto” (Vaikra – Levítico – cap. 23 vers. 42) y también «La festividad de las cabañas (Sucot) habrás de celebrar durante siete días, una vez recogido el fruto de tu era y de tu lagar y te regocijarás en tu fiesta, tú y tu hijo y tu hija…el prosélito y el huérfano y la viuda que está en tus ciudades» (Debarim – Deuteronomio – cap.16 vers.13).

Sucot tiene dos mitzvot (preceptos) básicos asociados: comer en la Sucá  y recitar la bendición sobre los Arba Minim (las cuatro especies).

Vivir en la sucá recuerda las “cabañas” que D’s proveyó durante el viaje del pueblo judío durante 40 años por el desierto. Esas cabañas eran realmente nubes que rodeaban todo el campamento judío a lo largo de sus viajes y los protegía del calor y del frío. También les servían como protección de los animales salvajes y de las naciones que querían hacerles daño.

Por su parte los Arba Minim están establecidos en la Torá cuando ordena   “Y tomaréis para vosotros en el primer día el fruto de un árbol hermoso (etrog), hojas de palma (lulav), ramas de mirto (hadasim) y ramas de sauce (aravot) y os regocijaréis ante D´s, vuestro Señor, durante siete días…” (Vaikra – Levítico – cap. 23 vers. 40).

Sucot es una festividad de gran alegría, una de sus denominaciones es Jag (fiesta) en la que expresamos nuestra completa confianza en D’s, y celebramos nuestra certidumbre de haber recibido “un buen juicio” durante los Iamim Noraim.

En Shabat Jol Hamoed Sucot (30 de septiembre) se lee el libro de Kohele (Eclesiastes). La frase principal de esta lectura es «Vanidad de vanidades dice Kohelet. Vanidad de vanidades todo es vanidad», en la fiesta de la alegría, de la recolección. Una de las explicaciones es que esta lectura despierta cuestionamiento, si la verdadera felicidad es solo cuando el hombre satisface todas sus necesidades, y el libro responde que no la satisfacción material es la principal, sino el esfuerzo continuo para el perfeccionamiento de las cualidades morales.

La festividad de Sucot está relacionada directamente con el “agua”, ya que es el día del juicio universal respecto a las bendiciones de lluvia e irrigación para el año venidero, por lo que en los días de Jol Amoed se caracterizan por celebraciones llamadas Simjat Beit HaShoeva, conmemorando las libaciones de agua (derramar agua) que eran ofrecidas en el Templo durante Sucot.

Sucot también es un tiempo de bendición universal para todos los pueblos –simbolizados por las 70 ofrendas adicionales que se ofrecían en el Beit Hamikdash (Templo de Jerusalem) durante la festividad, que correspondían a las 70 naciones del mundo.

El séptimo día de Sucot, el último, recibe el nombre de Hoshaná Rabá,(15 de octubre) en el que se realizan siete hoshanot, (circulación alrededor de un rollo de la Torá puesto sobre la Bimá), con los Arba Minim en la mano, que culmina con el aporreo de la rama de sauce en el piso. Hoshaná Rabá es conocido como el día del sello final del juicio que comenzó en Rosh Hashaná. En Hoshaná Rabá, es tradición de leer Sefer Devarim (Libro de Deuteronomio) y permanecer despiertos toda la noche estudiando Torá.

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