El retorno de los sefardíes: Expedientes de alumnos judíos en Cádiz (1891-1932)

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el-retorno-de-los-sefardies-del-norte-de-africa-expedientes-de-alumnos-judios-en-cadiz-1891-1932

Cuatro siglos después del decreto de expulsión, por uno de los mismos puertos que salieron, empezaban a volver tímidamente algunos sefardíes procedentes del norte de África, algunos físicamente, otros a través de sus expedientes académicos los cuales se conservan en el Archivo Histórico Provincial de Cádiz, procedentes del Instituto Provincial de segunda enseñanza y que han salido a la luz pública gracias a la labor de José Ramón Barroso. Dichos documentos son una fuente imprescindible para el estudio de la historia y genealogía de las familias judías del norte de África bajo dominio español.

Tras la abolición definitiva de la Inquisición en 1834 se abre una nueva etapa para los judíos en España, antes de la que una supuesta vuelta de los judíos fuera impensable. Desde finales del siglo XV el decreto de expulsión seguía vigente, confirmado por posteriores reales órdenes, pero esta situación empezaría a cambiar en la segunda mitad de la centuria con las leyes de libertad religiosa y con el asentamiento de judíos en Gibraltar y en las posesiones del norte de África. La Guerra de África y los acontecimientos que la precedieron provocaron el primer retorno masivo de judíos a España. Procedentes de Tetuán llegaron en 1859 muchas familias que se instalaron en Gibraltar y otras localidades cercanas. España dio facilidades a los judíos de Marruecos para la obtención de la nacionalidad y algunos de ellos se quedaron en España. En 1868 se proclama la libertad de culto, aunque sigue vigente el decreto de expulsión de 1492. En 1903 el senador Ángel Pulido comienza su campaña filosefardí, a favor de los que él llamó “españoles sin patria”, y con los que abogó por establecer lazos culturales, logrando para ello el beneplácito del Rey. Gracias a esta campaña se crearon escuelas para niños sefardíes en Marruecos y se funda la “Casa Universal de los Sefardíes”.

Antes de la declaración del Protectorado franco-español en Marruecos las comunidades judías más importantes (Tetuán, Tánger, Larache, etc.) buscaban ya la protección de los estados europeos, escapando de la jurisdicción del sultán. En el territorio que le correspondía a España vivían unos 9.000 judíos, la mayoría en Tetuán, organizados con tribunales rabínicos y un notariado propio. Entre 1924 y 1929 varios decretos otorgan la nacionalidad española a los descendientes de sefardíes en el extranjero, aunque no se les nombra como tales sino como “familias de origen español”.

En 1863 se estableció el instituto de segunda enseñanza en Cádiz, en un principio en el Convento de San Agustín. Desde su creación, el Instituto de Cádiz trató por todos los medios que se le considerase provincial. Uno de los principales obstáculos era que ya existía uno con dicha categoría en Jerez, por lo que la administración temía que los patronos de éste se retiraran y, por tanto, tuviese que mantener dos Institutos en la provincia. Por fin, la Real Orden de 19 de julio de 1876 otorgaba al Instituto de Cádiz la categoría de provincial sin perjuicio para el de Jerez. Al iniciarse el siglo XX los institutos pasaron a denominarse Institutos Generales y Técnicos, para armonizar los estudios clásicos con los nuevos estudios técnicos. El Plan de Estudios era de seis años y duraría hasta los años veinte. Las matrículas eran oficial, libre y colegiada.

Los fondos históricos del Instituto Columela fueron transferidos al Archivo Histórico Provincial de Cádiz el 5 de diciembre de 2003. Entre otras series documentales destaca la de los expedientes personales de alumnos, que suele iniciar con una instancia de parte del interesado y que generalmente, en el mismo documento, incluía el examen de ingreso, consistente en una prueba de lecto-escritura, ortografía y las cuatro reglas aritméticas, así como la nota y la firma de los profesores. La instancia se acompañaba de una acreditación, partida de bautismo o nacimiento, y el certificado de estudios del centro de procedencia. Otros documentos que formaban parte del expediente son: matrículas de asignaturas, papeletas de exámenes, certificados de estudios, certificados médicos, fotografías etc. Las modalidades de enseñanza eran oficial, doméstica, libre y privada.

Un número importante de las matriculaciones procedían de Ceuta, Melilla y otras poblaciones del norte de África (Tetuán, Tánger, Larache, etc.), muchos de los cuales se examinaban en Ceuta, Tánger, Tetuán o Larache, trasladándose los profesores a esas localidades para examinarlos de ingreso. Así, entre 1890 y 1939 se examinaron en Ceuta unos 625 alumnos, en Tetuán lo hicieron 243 entre 1915 y 1931, mientras que en Tánger lo hacían 161 entre los años 1907 y 1931. El número de examinados en Larache no superaba los 130 entre 1917 y 1930, mientras que en Alcazarquivir sólo lo hicieron 12 entre 1924 y 1930.

Para el trabajo publicado se han examinado los expedientes de alumnos que en el mismo dijeron ser de religión judaica, un total de 66, aunque posiblemente existieran más (atendiendo a sus apellidos y a su procedencia geográfica), que van desde 1891 a1932. Por sexo, todos ellos son varones, la mayoría del norte de Marruecos o de las ciudades españolas de Ceuta y Melilla, destacando Tánger, Tetuán y Larache. Hay algunos que, originarios de países americanos (Argentina, Brasil o Panamá), residen en ciudades del norte de Marruecos. La mayoría de los expedientes presenta partida de nacimiento expedida por los alcaldes de barrio o notarios rabínicos, o ya entrado el siglo XX, por el cónsul español. La mayoría de los alumnos fueron examinados desplazándose el tribunal.

Leer más: La historia de Annie, la judía ortodoxa que dio la vuelta al mundo en bicicleta… en 1894

Los expedientes de estos alumnos se componen de manera general de la solicitud de ingreso, el examen de ingreso (a veces en la misma solicitud), el certificado de estudios primarios, la partida de nacimiento (con las salvedades apuntadas), certificados médicos y de vacunación, matrículas de asignaturas, papeletas de exámenes y la solicitud para que se les exima de la enseñanza de la religión católica. Estos últimos documentos son los que diferencian el expediente de los alumnos judíos del resto. En relación a la filiación de los alumnos judíos, el certificado lo expide el rebino o el alcalde del barrio judío, que actúa como juez de paz o como una especie de notariado rabínico. Posteriormente estos certificados los firma o los refrenda el cónsul español o la autoridad en el Protectorado de Marruecos. Estos documentos son de un gran interés desde el punto de vista genealógico, al nombrar a los padres, profesión y procedencia de estos y a los abuelos. Otro hecho diferencial es que los alumnos judíos presentan un certificado, normalmente firmado por el padre del alumno, en el que se pide que se pide que se le exima de la enseñanza de la religión católica por ser de religión judaica.

Jorge Rozemblum (a partir del documento publicado en septiembre de 2021 por José Ramón Barroso del Archivo Histórico Provincial de Cádiz)

Director de Radio Sefarad

www.radiosefarad.com

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