Janucá: todo lo que hay que saber

La fiesta de Janucá, que empieza este año al anochecer del 28 de noviembre (25 de Kislev), celebra el milagro  de la Dedicación del Templo de Jerusalén en el siglo segundo de esta era, tras la derrota de los griegos, que ocupaban Judea, a manos de un grupo de judíos llamados Macabeos.

El aspecto principal de Januca, que significa “dedicación” en hebreo, es el encendido de la janukiá, o candelabro de nueve brazos, durante ocho noches. Entre las costumbres están comer comidas freídas en aceite y jugar con una pirinola de cuatro caras.

 44 velas

En una caja de velas para la janukiá hay al menos 44 unidades, suficientes para que una persona la encienda cada una de las noches, lo cual se considera una mitzvá, u obligación religiosa. Algunas cajas incluyen velas extras, pues suelen romperse con facilidad. Las velas vienen en varios colores, tipos de cera e incluso olores. Según varias opiniones, la forma preferida de cumplir la obligación es usar aceite para el encendido.

Cuidado con las calorías

Las comidas de la festividad son deliciosas pero están cargadas de calorías. Foto de Shutterstock.com.

Las comidas de la festividad, como las donuts, son deliciosas pero están llenas de calorías.
 

No espere que las comidas que consume durante Janucá, freídas y azucaradas, no engorden. La golosina más popular durante ésta es la sufgania, o donut, conocida en algunos países como buñuelo, burmuelo o berlina. Está rellena de mermelada o crema, y algunas están cubiertas con azúcar de repostería. Cada una tiene entre 400 y 600 calorías. También popular son las latkes, pastelitos de papa, cada una de las cuales tiene unas 150. Un svinge (bollo marroquí) le garantiza entre 350 y 442. Las que menos calorías tienen, 85 cada una, son las monedas de chocolate.

Los israelíes devoran aproximadamente 24 millones de sufganiot durante la festividad, lo que suman unos 10.800 millones de calorías.

Janucá, Hanuká, Hanukkah

A Janucá se le conoce también como Fiesta de las Luces o de la Dedicación. Como si sus varios nombres no fueran suficientes, tiene diversas transliteraciones en otros idiomas, debido al sonido gutural en hebreo de su primera letra, que pierde su sabor en español y en inglés.

Trompo, pirinola, peonza, sevivon o dreidel

Cualquiera que sea su nombre, las peonzas son parte esencial de la festividad. Foto de Flash90.

Cualquiera que sea su nombre, las peonzas son parte esencial de la festividad. Foto de Flash90.
 

A diferencia de los trompos o pirinolas tradicionales, redondos y que se hacen girar con una cuerda, la peonza de Janucá tiene cuatro caras, cada una con una letra hebrea diferente. Se hace girar con la mano.

En Israel, las letras son nun, gimel, hay y peh, las primeras de la frase “un gran milagro sucedió aquí.” En otros países las letras son nun, gimel, hay y sin: “Un gran milagro sucedió allí”.

Los griegos le prohibieron a los judíos estudiar la Torá, así que los niños solían reunirse en secreto para estudiarla y simulaban jugar con sus penozas por si un soldado griego se aparecía.

El político y escritor israelí Avram Burg tiene la colección de peonzas más grande del mundo: más de 3.500.

En ídish, idioma hablado por los judíos ashkenazis, la peonza se conoce como dreidel, palabra cuya raíz que viene de drei: girar o lanzar. En hebreo el nombre es sevivon.

Leer más: Janucá, la fiesta de los milagros y la luz: el 14 será el acto central de Jabad Argentina

Menor, pero muy popular

Aunque es una de las fiestas judías más conocidas y celebradas, es una festividad menor, en término de rituales, si se compara con la Pascua, o Pesaj, Rosh Hashana o Yom Kippur. Ni siquiera se menciona en la Torá.

Algunos dicen que ganó popularidad a final del siglo diecinueve entre los judíos estadounidenses debido a que coincide, a veces, con la temporada navideña. El calendario gregoriano, por el que se rigen las fiestas católicas, es diferente al judío.

Otros opinan que la razón de la popularidad es su alegría. Maimónides, un rabino de origen español, escribió que la mitzvá de encender la janukiá es incluso más importante que comprar vino para el Sabbath.

Una tiene 7 brazos; la otra, 9

El menorá es un candelabro de siete brazos utilizado en las sinagogas. La janukiá, por otro lado, tiene nueve y se usa es solamente durante Janucá. Debido a que aquella también puede llamarse menorá de Janucá, la confusión surge con frecuencia.

La tradición indica todas las velas de la janukiá deben estar al mismo nivel, salvo el shamash, la novena, que enciende las otras ocho, el cual debe estar un poco más elevada o por debajo.

Encendido en la dirección correcta

Encendiendo la janukiá. Foto de Flash90.

Encendiendo la janukiá. Foto de Flash90.

Un sistema de navegación GPS podría ayudar a organizar el encendido de la janukiá. De acuerdo al uso más aceptado, las velas se deben colocar de derecha a izquierda, que corresponde a la dirección en la que se lee en hebreo. Pero hay que encenderlas de izquierda a derecha, dándole mayor atención a la nueva vela primero.

Janucá en la Casa Blanca

Cada año, el presidente de los Estados Unidos y la primera dama abren las puertas de la Casa Blanca a cientos de políticos judíos, representantes de organizaciones y rectores de instituciones religiosas para la celebración de Janucá.

La primera celebración fue en 1951, cuando el primer ministro de Israel David Ben-Gurion le regaló al presidente Harry Truman una janukiá. En 1979, el presidente Jimmy Carter se convirtió en el primer mandatario estadounidense en darle reconocimiento público a la fiesta durante una ceremonia organizada por la organización religiosa Chabad Lubavitch.

Ronald Reagan mencionó la festividad con frecuencia y en 1991 George H.W. Bush asistió a una celebración de Janucá para el personal del Edificio de la Oficina Ejecutiva de la Casa Blanca. Dos años después, Bill Clinton organizó otra con el personal de ésta.

Israel21c cuenta que la primera fiesta oficial de Janucá en la Casa Blanca tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 2001, para la cual el presidente George W. Bush le pidió prestada una janukiá de cien años de antigüedad al Museo Judío de Nueva York. Desde entonces el evento es esperado con mucha anticipación en Washington, DC.

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