A 50 años de la masacre de Múnich: Un antes y un después en la respuesta de Israel al terrorismo

Juegos Olímpicos de Munich
Juegos Olímpicos de Munich

Este 5 de setiembre se recuerda el 50 aniversario de la masacre de los Juegos Olímpicos de Múnich. El 5 de setiembre de 1972, el grupo terrorista palestino, «Septiembre Negro», tomó de rehenes y asesinó a once miembros del equipo olímpico israelí. También mataron a un oficial de la policía alemana

Los terroristas aprovecharon la negligencia de la seguridad de la Villa Olímpica para infiltrarse en el complejo. Tomaron las habitaciones que alojaban a los miembros de la delegación israelí. Los palestinos asesinaron a dos de los atletas y mantuvieron a los otros nueve de rehenes; exigiendo a cambio la liberación de terroristas presos en Israel. Mientras se elaboraba una respuesta (negativa) a sus propuestas, el gobierno alemán suministró un avión a los terroristas palestinos.

Leer más: La Autoridad Palestina y Fatah honran a terroristas de la masacre de los Juegos Olímpicos de Múnich 1972

A los terroristas, con los rehenes israelíes, los trasladaron en helicóptero al Aeropuerto de Múnich, donde el gobierno alemán había planeado una operación de rescate.

Sin embargo, la misión fracasó y en el caos asesinaron a todos los rehenes israelíes. Cinco de los terroristas fueron abatidos y los otros tres fueron detenidos, y liberados dos meses después.

11 atletas israelíes y un policía alemán muertos

Los once miembros del equipo olímpico israelí asesinados en la masacre eran: David Berger, Zeev Friedman; Yosef Romano; Eliezer Halfin, Mark Slavin, Moshe Weinberg, Kehat Shorr, Andre Spitzer, Amitzor Shapira, Yosef Gutfreund y Yakov Springer

Cincuenta años después del asesinato de 11 atletas israelíes y de un policía alemán, las sombras superan con creces a las luces. La mala gestión de la crisis, unida a la falta de transparencia posterior provocaron una fricción en las relaciones entre Bonn e Israel. Solo con la conmemoración del medio siglo de la Masacre de Munich se ha producido un acercamiento entre las partes así como el acuerdo de compensación de las víctimas, quienes por decisión propia no estarán presentes en el homenaje.

La Masacre de Munich supuso un antes y un después en la respuesta israelí al terrorismo. La mala gestión de la crisis, el desentendimiento de sus aliados y la falta de empatía del resto de estados participantes en los Juegos Olímpicos provocaron que Israel adoptara una estrategia propia en su lucha contra el terrorismo. Mientras que los terroristas palestinos fueron enterrados en Libia como héroes, Israel solo recibió criticas de sus aliados occidentales. Incluso el que fuera líder de Septiembre Negro, Alí Hassan Salameh, escapó a varios intentos de asesinato al estar protegido por los servicios secretos norteamericanos.

Cuando conmemoramos el cincuenta aniversario de la Masacre de Munich, Israel sigue dependiendo de sí mismo para protegerse de los ataques de los terroristas.


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