Reunión en DAIA con el Embajador de Portugal por Homenaje a De Sousa Mendes y Ley de Retorno.

Este Lunes en la DAIA (Delegación Asociaciones Israelitas Argentina) se realizó una reunión a la que asistieron el Embajador de Portugal en la Argentina Henrique Silveira Borges , el Subsercretario de Derechos Humanos y pluralismo cultural de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Lic.Claudio Avruj y los anfitriones , el Presidente Julio Schlosser, Mario Comisarenco y otras autoridades.

Los motivos de la reunión fueron el acto que  se realizará el 2 de octubre en La Plaza de la Shoa en homenaje a Aristides de Sousa Mendes como «Justo entre las Naciones» y tambien sobre el reciente decreto de ley Nº 30-A/2015, de la República de Portugal, por el cual se otorga la ciudadanía portuguesa a los descendientes de sefaradíes portugueses que fueron expulsados de ese país durante la Inquisición.

¿Quién fue y qué hizo Aristides de Souza Mendes?

Aristides de Souza Mendes era cónsul general de Portugal en Burdeos, Francia. Al capitular Francia en junio de 1940 decenas de miles de refugiados, entre ellos miles de judíos, se dirigieron hacia el sur de Francia con la intención de cruzar la frontera con España, continuar a Portugal y partir desde allí a América.

Hasta el 10 de mayo de 1940 era posible obtener visados de entrada o permisos de tránsito a través de Portugal en el consulado de ese país en Burdeos. Para esa fecha, cuando Alemania invadió Holanda y Bélgica, el gobierno de Portugal prohibió el tránsito por el país de refugiados, en particular judíos. Esa medida significó el cierre de la última vía de esperanza para ellos. Ciudadanos británicos portadores de una recomendación del cónsul británico podían obtener visados. Pero alrededor de otros 30.000 refugiados, entre ellos 10.000 judíos se congregaron frente al consulado portugués presionando para obtener el trozo de papel que les podía hacer salir de Francia.

Sousa Mendes, un católico devoto y de buen corazón, al ver la apremiante situación en que se encontraban los refugiados, decidió desobedecer las instrucciones explícitas de su gobierno. Recibió la visita de una delegación de los refugiados, encabezada por el rabino Jaím Kruger, a quienes prometió emitir visados de tránsito a todo aquel que lo necesitara, agregando que quien no pudiese pagar por los visados los recibiría gratis.

A continuación estableció una oficina improvisada en el consulado y con la ayuda de dos de sus hijos y algunos judíos que se encontraban a la espera en las cercanías, comenzó a emitir visados de tránsito. Por tres días y tres noches trabajó sin permitirse ni un minuto de descanso, hasta desplomarse exhausto una vez completado el trabajo. Entre el 15 y el 22 de junio estampó 1.575 visados.

Los rumores acerca de las acciones de Sousa Mendes llegaron a Lisboa y se le ordenó perentoriamente retornar a su país. Dos hombres fueron enviados para escoltarle de regreso a Portugal. En el camino, y todavía en suelo francés, pasaron por el consulado portugués en Bayona. Allí Sousa Mendes vio una multitud de varios centenares de personas apiñadas a las puertas del consulado. Ello le recordó las escenas del suyo en Burdeos. A pesar de haber sido llamado de regreso entró a la oficina y haciendo caso omiso de las objeciones del cónsul local, le ordenó emitir de inmediato visados a todos los solicitantes. Él mismo estampó los mismos agregando con su propia letra: “El Gobierno de Portugal solicita amablemente al Gobierno de España permitir al portador de este documento cruzar España libremente. El portador es un refugiado del conflicto en Europa y está en camino a Portugal”. Después de proveer a los solicitantes del tan buscado documento los acompañó personalmente a un puesto fronterizo español y se ASEGURÓ que lo cruzaran sin incidentes.

De regreso a Lisboa de Sousa Mendes fue juzgado por un tribunal disciplinario y despedido del Servicio Exterior. Esto lo dejó en la indigencia e incapacitado para proveer por sus 13 hijos.

Murió en la pobreza en 1954. Recién en 1988 fue rehabilitado totalmente gracias a presiones externas y al esfuerzo de sus hijos.

Cuando se le pidió que explicara sus acciones, dijo: “Si miles de judíos están sufriendo por un cristiano (Hitler), no hay duda que un cristiano puede sufrir por tantos judíos”.

El 18 de octubre de 1966 Yad Vashem reconoció a Aristides de Sousa Mendes como Justo de las Naciones

Concesión de nacionalidad portuguesa a descendientes de judíos sefarditas
Fue aprobada la alteración al Reglamento de Nacionalidad Portuguesa, permitiendo la concesión de la nacionalidad portuguesa, por naturalización, a descendientes de judíos sefarditas. Información sobre la legislación aplicable podrá ser consultada en:
Para la obtención de los Certificados de la Comunidad Judía Portuguesa, así como otras informaciones relacionadas con este asunto, podrán ser utilizados los siguientes contactos:
I) Comunidad Israelita de Lisboa, Tel. +351 213 931 130
II) Comunidad Israelita de Porto,
Tel. +351 911 768 596
Fuente: Embajada de Portugal

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