«De Villa Crespo a Budapest», el diario de viaje de Uriel Aiskovich

El Director del Centro Hebreo IONA visitó Budapest, la capital de Hungría. Vivió una experiencia «llena de contrastes» como él mismo explica, además de la iniciativa de crear una red de comunidades judías auspiciadas por el Ministerio de la Diáspora de Israel. Compartió con VIS a VIS su «Hoja de Ruta»

Budapest- Cenizas que aún no se apagan
Raíces judías- que vuelven a sumergir luego del horror nazi y la ocupación sovietica.

Diario de Viaje

Durante Agosto pude conocer por primera vez en mi vida Budapest. El viaje estuvo lleno de contrastes, los mismos con los que me encontré de aquella ciudad que fue parte central del Imperio Austro Húngaro- ocupada por los Nazis y luego por la Unión Soviética.
Compartimos una semana junto a fundadores de iniciativas creativas del mundo judío de distintas partes del mundo, con quienes estamos creando una red de comunidades judías creativas auspiciadas por el Ministerio de la Diáspora de Israel y el movimiento global Hakhel de comunidades intencionales.

En la foto de portada se pueden ver a los integrantes de las distintas comunidades: desde la izquierda a la derecha : Rivka Procaccia, Hevria, NYC; Robert Bettman, Director y fundador de Jewish Artists of DC, Washington, DC.; Brian Shelby, Presidente de FED, NYC; Deborah Fishman Shelby, Fundadora de FED, NYC; Sarah Gavin, Hakehillah Corea del Sur, Seul; Patricia Eszter Margit, Fundadora de Art Kibbutz, NYC; Eli Reiter, Shtiebel, NYC; Roberta Kraus, Art Kibbutz, NYC; Uriel Aiskovich, Director y fundador de ID, Buenos Aires; Tal Gordon, Ninth Street, SudAfrica, y aunque no está en la foto, también participa David ElChatran, Paris, Fundador de JewSalsa.

Esta foto representa muchas de las contradicciones aún presentes en Budapest. Szimpla, el bar de las ruinas,  fue durante la ocupación Nazi el gueto donde se confinaron miles de judíos.

Más de diez mil fueron deportados a los campos de concentración Nazi. Durante la ocupación soviética el lugar permaneció abandonado y en ruinas. Desde hace unos 10 años, jóvenes artistas y emprendedores decidieron transformar el lugar. Con muy poca inversión y muchas ideas, transformaron el peor lugar, en el centro más vital de Budapest. Más de 10 bares abiertos, ruinas hechas arte, creatividad por todos lados. Aún así las marcas del horror se hacen presentes como puede verse en la foto. Hay cosas que nunca pueden borrarse.

En el mismo lugar que se destruyeron miles de vidas judías, hoy florece de vitalidad y también de grandes inversiones

El barrio judío
Recorrer hoy el barrio judío de Budapest, no es sólo viajar al pasado, si no también encontrarse con deliciosos restaurantes de comida israelí y kosher, con un centro cultural que lleva el nombre de Baruch Spinoza y con una de las zonas de bares más concurrida dentro del circuito de salidas nocturnos.
La gran Sinagoga de Budapest es la Sinagoga más grande de todo Europa, con una arquitectura única y situada a pocos metros de la casa en donde nació Teodoro Hertzl.

Aquí es posible ver el único teatro ydish que permaneció abierto durante la ocupación Soviética.

Hoy revitalizado y funcionando permanentemente con escuela de teatro para todas las edades, vuelve a recuperar la vitalidad que tuvo previo a la llegada del nazismo.

Una antigua Jupá, lugar donde se celebran las bodas judías, en el patio de una de las antiguas sinagogas.

La costumbre tradicional era poder celebrar las bodas judías, luego del atardecer, ante la luz de las estrellas.

 

Aquí se puede vislumbrar la maravillosa arquitectura, con estilos bizantinos, de la Sinagoga de la calle Rumbach.

El nuevo Centro Cultural judío que lleva el nombre de Baruch Spinoza.

Allí se puede disfrutar de un buen café o vino, disfrutando de una importante variedad de propuestas musicales o literarias.

 Teleki Una versión Hungará del Lower East Side o el Once

Teleki fue desde fines del Siglo 18, el barrio que recibió a inmigrantes judíos desde diferentes lugares de Europa. En conventillos, muy similares a los que podemos encontrar en Once o Villa Crespo, se alojaban grandes cantidades de familias. Durante la Shoá, al lado de la plaza que reunía el mercado central, se estableció una estación de tren desde donde se hicieron deportaciones masivas de judíos

La sinagoga de Shtiebel

Una de las experiencias más fuertes que tuve fue conocer la Sinagoga de Shtibel en el barrio de Teleki. Esa sinagoga no tenía ni la arquitectura, ni la belleza, ni la magnitud de la gran Sinagoga. Tan solo una pequeña casa dentro de lo que fue hace un siglo un gran conventillo poblado de cientos de niños y ancianos. Dificilmente entraran allí más de 50 personas. Pero aún así había algo mucho más fascinante que los lugares turísticos y famosos. Su historia y su gente.
Shtiebel quedó abandonada y en ruinas luego del nazismo. Con la llegada del comunismo soviético fue olvidada y no había nadie que reclame por ella.

El Shabat que pasé en Budapest pude vivirlo en esta Sinagoga, que hoy es liderada por un rabino ortodoxo de SudÁfrica , quien junto a su familia y distintos voluntarios se ocupan de que la misma siga funcionando. Allí pude escuchar varias historias de jóvenes y adultos que con la caída de la Unión Soviética pudieron re descubrir su historia personal. La gran mayoría eran historias de terceras generaciones de sobrevivientes de la Shoá que desconocían haber sido sobrevivientes y haber sido judíos. Quienes durante el nazismo habían logrado esconderse y no ser deportados, con la ocupación soviética posterior, escondieron su judaísmo, dejaron de vivirlo y nunca le hablaron a sus hijos de su identidad. Recién con la caída del comunismo el judaísmo volvió a salir de las cenizas, lleno de temores, secretos y horrores. A diferencia de lugares como Alemania, donde se educó, habló y aún se procesa el pasado Nazi, en Hungría todavía hay mucho latente, por ser procesado.

Sziget- Una Isla de Libertad

Sziget es el festival de música y arte más grande de toda Europa. Durante una semana entera millones de personas de todo el mundo se reúnen en una isla en las afueras de Budapest, donde se preparan más de 15 escenarios, con propuestas musicales y culturales que suceden desde el mediodía hasta cualquier hora de la noche. La apertura de Sziget este año estuvo a cargo de Ed Sheeran de UK, y el cierre por parte de Foo Fighters, la banda liderada por Dave Grohl. (Al final del Show Dave nombró especialmente la bandera Israelí preguntando si les gustaría que vayan a tocar allí). El lema del festival es “The power of diversity/el poder de la diversidad” y la definición del lugar como “Island of Freedom”. Fue fascinante ver cómo algo tan masivo podía funcionar en un clima de seguridad, respeto, y organización dificil de encontrar en sudamérica. Los escenarios de las grandes bandas, eran acompañados por espacios culturales, innovación tecnológica, centenares de puestos gastronómicos y una isla de la sociedad civil.
En el mismo día que tocaba la banda inglesa Franz Ferdinand, en otro escenario, se transmitía la película muda del Golem de los años 20, mientras una banda de música experimental que mezclaba Jazz con música electrónica , musicalizaba el momento.
En ese marco pude tener la experiencia de compartir junto al grupo de fundadores de comunidades creativas la experiencia de ser voluntarios en el Jewish Meeting point de la Isla de la Sociedad Civil, en donde por sobre todo mucha gente no judía de Europa pudo conocer más del judaísmo, desde conceptos centrales de la Kabalá, intervenciones artísticas, o simplemente sentarse a charlar. El punto central fue haber reunido a cientos de jóvenes que venían de Israel, Europa u otras partes del mundo

Budapest fue una experiencia de encontrarme con todos los contrastes posibles. La libertad de Sziget, la vitalidad del renacimiento del barrio judío, y al mismo tiempo los horrores nazis, el terror comunista, las historias contadas, y también las no contadas. Quienes decían sentir miedo, quizás irracional, de expresarse como judíos públicamente, y recordar las historias que pudieron descubrir de sus abuelos o bisabuelos. Lugares como Sziget, donde el judaísmo podía exhibirse públicamente, sin necesidad de seguridad o ningún temor, como también grandes denuncias de pintadas, amenazas y expresiones xenófobas en otros lugares de Budapest.
En uno de los encuentros que compartimos con el Centro Cultural judío, su directora nos contaba su necesidad e intención de poder ofrecer experiencias judías alejadas de la persecución nazi, y enfocandose en lo positivo, vital, del mundo judío. A pesar de estas intenciones, se sentían a mitad de camino. Quizás por que aún allí había mucho que no fue hablado, procesado, o nunca superado.
Y pienso en esto como metáfora de nuestros tiempos. Donde somos parte de una generación que, sin haber vivido la Shoá, todavía somos sobrevivientes. Donde podemos expresar nuestro judaísmo sin necesidad de sentirnos perseguidos, pero al mismo tiempo, todavía nos llegan las historias de nuestros abuelos y bisabuelos. Donde a veces creemos estar muy seguros, y podemos organizar festivales masivos en la vía pública, y otras tantas veces, reconocemos a las instituciones judías por los pilotes de cementos.

Uriel Aiskovich

 

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