Shavuot, la festividad positiva que también atraviesa pantallas


Debido a la pandemia por el coronavirus, las actividades habituales que se realizan en las sinagogas, instituciones educativas y socio deportivas, además de los grupos de encuentros, quedaron destinadas a la intimidad del hogar o al moderno «zoom».

El Shabat, la Tefilá, Pesaj, las evocaciones de la Shoá, y de los caídos por la defensa de Israel, Yom Haatzmaut, Lag Baomer, Yom Yerushalaim y ahora Shavuot, salieron del marco institucionalizado para encontrar un nuevo significado personal y familiar.

Este año cada comunidad rezará online las tefilot.

Shavuot, se celebra exactamente siete semanas (shavuot, plural de shavua, semana) después del segundo día de Pesaj, el 6 y 7 de Sivan, y ese es el origen de este nombre de la festividad, que conmemora Matán Torá, la entrega de la Torá en el Har Sinai (Monte Sinaí).
Pero también tiene un significado agrícola, pues corresponde a la época en que en el hemisferio norte, y por lo tanto en Eretz Israel (Tierra de Israel) se recogen los primeros frutos, las primicias, que eran los que los Beni Israel (hijos de Israel) ofrendaban en el Beit Hamikdash.
En la Torá y fuentes rabínicas esta festividad es denominada de varias maneras:
Jag HaShavuot (Fiesta de las semanas): por celebrarse al finalizar las siete semanas de Sefirat Ha’omer (la cuenta diaria del Omer) iniciada en la segunda noche de Pésaj.
Zman Matan Toraténu (Época de la Entrega de nuestra Torá): Según la fecha en la cual el Pueblo Judío recibió la Torá, en el Har Sinai.
Jag Hacatsir (Fiesta de la Cosecha):  por ser la época de la cosecha, principalmente del trigo.
Jag Habicurim (Fiesta  de las Primicias): se iniciaba el momento en que los Bnei Israel debían ofrendar los Bicurim (primeros Frutos) en el Beit Hamikdash.
Atséret (Conclusión): Los jajamim (sabios) del Talmud consideraban esta festividad como conclusión del período iniciado en Pesaj.
Shavuot Eretz Israel Shavuot se celebra un solo día, mientras que en la diáspora se lo hace en dos días, en que rigen las prohibiciones establecidas por la Halajá para los días festivos.
Este año, la Festividad de Shavuot se celebra los días 6 y 7 de Sivan, (del jueves 28 al 30 de mayo).
Las tefilot (oraciones) que se rezan son las correspondientes a los Shalosh Regalim con las especificidades propias de la fecha, de acuerdo a los textos del Majzor (libro de oraciones de la festividad) o del Sidur (libro de oraciones)
Al igual que en Shabat y el resto de las festividades, al concluir Shajarit (la oración matutina) se recita el Halel (conjunto de salmos de alabanza) y luego de la Lectura de la Torá y la Haftará se reza Musaf (oración especial agregada por la festividad).
Previo a sacar la Torá del Aarón Hakodesh (Arca sagrada) se procede a leer Meguilat Rut (el librode Rut)
Para la lectura de la Torá son llamadas 5 personas (Cohen, Levi y 3 Israel) y el Maftir, quien es él que luego lee la Haftará.
Una vez que el Cohen es llamado a la Torá, pero antes de que pronuncie la bendición correspondiente se recita el piyut (poema litúgico) Hakdamut *.
El segundo día, una vez finalizada la lectura de la Torá y la Haftará, se dice Izkor, la oración en memoria y homenaje a los fallecidos.

Lectura de la Tora y Haftarot en Shavuot
Primer Día
Torá: Shemot (Éxodo) Cap. 19 vers. 1 a Cap. 20 vers. 23.
El capítulo 19 corresponde a como se preparó el Am Israel para Matán Torá y el capítulo 20 incluye los Aseret Hadibrot (los Diez Mandamientos)
Maftir: Bemidvar (Números) Cap. 28 vers. 26 a vers. 31.
Establece las ofrendas de la festividad.
Haftará: Yejezkel (Ezequiel) Cap. 1 vers. 1 a vers. 28 y Cap. 3 vers. 12.
Describe el Profeta el mérito del Am Israel de haber presenciado la revelación del Creador en Har Sinaí.

Segundo Día
Torá: Devarim (Deuteronomio) Cap.14 vers. 22 a Cap. 16 vers. 17.
Detalla las leyes relacionadas con el diezmo, la shemita (remisión) de deudas cada 7 años, los prestamos a los pobres, los esclavos y los primogénitos machos del ganado. También se refiere a celebración de los Shalosh Regalim.
Maftir: Bemidvar (Números) Cap. 28 vers. 26 a vers. 31.
Establece las ofrendas de la festividad.
Haftará: Habakuk(Habacuc) Cap. 2 vers. 20 a Cap. 3- vers. 19.
Mensaje del Profeta destinado a que el Am Israel confíe en el Creador.
Izkor: luego de la lectura de la Torá y de la Haftará se dice la oración en memoria de los fallecidos.


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