Hospital israelí desarrolla tratamiento contra la esclerosis múltiple

Israel amplía su ayuda con Honduras y Guatemala tras los huracanes de las últimas semanas
Israel amplía su ayuda con Honduras y Guatemala tras los huracanes de las últimas semanas

Un innovador tratamiento con células madre desarrollado por un hospital israelí benefició a pacientes con esclerosis múltiple progresiva.

Los resultados del ensayo realizado por el Centro Médico Hadassah de Jerusalén y NeuroGénesis se publicaron en la revista Brain de la Universidad de Oxford. El tratamiento detuvo el avance de la enfermedad e incluso la revirtió, informó The Jerusalem Post.

La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad autoinmune que afecta a más de 2.3 millones de personas en el mundo. Causa daños en la mielina, la cubierta que protege los nervios, y promueve la transmisión de los impulsos nerviosos, así como en las células del sistema nervioso central, lo que conduce a una discapacidad neurológica.

Aquellas personas con EM experimentan hormigueo en las extremidades o entumecimiento. Además, pueden tener problemas para caminar y usar sus manos. Con el tiempo pueden incluso quedar paralizadas o tener problemas visuales. No se conoce una cura hasta la fecha. Los tratamientos existentes sólo reducen la incidencia de las recaídas o retrasan ligeramente el avance de la enfermedad.

El desarrollo del hospital israelí, conocido como NG-01, utiliza una “subpoblación autóloga patentada de células madre mesenquimales”. Es decir, células derivadas de la médula ósea de pacientes con EM, lo que asegura que no haya ningún elemento de rechazo. Las células se inyectan en la médula espinal de los pacientes y viajan al sitio de la lesión para crear un “ecosistema de reparación”.

El procedimiento es relativamente sencillo y toma unos 20 minutos bajo anestesia local. El paciente, a su vez, pasa un par de horas en observación antes de irse a casa.

Casi el 60% no mostró evidencias de actividad de la enfermedad durante todo el período de tratamiento. Por lo tanto, hay una disminución de más del 80% en el avance de la enfermedad.

Alrededor del 20% de los pacientes tratados con células madre mostró una mejoría después de la primera inyección. La enfermedad se detuvo en el 73% de los pacientes después de seis meses.

Y, por otra parte, los pacientes mejoraron su habilidad para caminar y la destreza de sus manos, aumentaron su potencia muscular y las habilidades neurológicas cognitivas. Una resonancia magnética funcional también mostró que había una mejoría en la función motora.

“Este ensayo proporciona resultados alentadores y sugiere un nuevo enfoque que puede frenar el avance de la enfermedad. Induce una mejoría y promueve los mecanismos de reparación en la EM progresiva”, manifestó el profesor Dimitrios Karussis de Hadassah, director del estudio.

El ensayo de fase 2 involucró a 48 pacientes y duró tres años. Sin embargo, unos 140 recibieron el tratamiento durante un ensayo de fase 1 en Hadassah.

En ninguno de los estudios se produjeron efectos secundarios graves relacionados con el tratamiento. Actualmente, los resultados son a corto plazo y requieren un tratamiento continuo para seguir siendo eficaces.

Karussis agregó: “Debemos ser cautelosos al interpretar los efectos positivos de los estudios de tamaño medio. Se requieren ensayos a gran escala para confirmar estos hallazgos. Por otro lado, cuando vemos tales mejoras neurológicas en pacientes con enfermedad activa y progresiva, estos hallazgos son ciertamente muy fuertes

NeuroGenesis y Hadassah compartieron los datos de sus primeros ensayos con la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de Estados Unidos. A continuación, realizarán un ensayo multicéntrico de fase 3 en EE.UU., Europa e Israel. Luego iniciarán el proceso de solicitud para su aprobación de dos a cinco años más.


Vía The Jerusalem Post / Enlace Judío


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