Los macabeos y el pánico de Adán. Por Jorge Rozemblum

los macabeos y la historia de Janucá
los macabeos y la historia de Janucá

Seguramente más de uno se sorprenderá al saber que la biblia judía (el Tanaj) no habla de los macabeos y la historia de Janucá. Sí lo hace el Antiguo Testamento católico (y por partida doble.

El Libro de Macabeos I y II, aunque le ganan los cristianos ortodoxos que incorporan hasta cuatro libros de los Macabeos).

No sólo eso: en ninguno de ellos se habla del milagro del aceite que dura ocho días, aunque sí en el Talmúd, específicamente en el Tratado de Shabat de la Gmará.

Lo que está comprobado históricamente por diversas fuentes es la rebelión del sacerdote Matatías y sus cinco hijos contra el rey seléucida (dinastía heredera de la parte oriental del imperio helénico que estableció Alejandro Magno) Antíoco IV Epifanes.

De los vástagos de Matatías, el que lograría más fama y heredaría en el 166 a.e.c. el liderazgo de las fuerzas rebeldes fue el primogénito Judas (Yehudá), apodado el Macabeo (en hebreo, el martillero). En sólo un año logra vencer y liberar el Templo de Jerusalén, saqueado y profanado con una estatua de Zeus dos años antes.

Es el momento de la Janucá, en hebreo, la reinauguración sacralizada.

Hay no obstante quienes (entre ellos, el mismísimo historiador Flavio Josefo) ponen en duda la intención del emperador de imponer un rito extraño (algo que no se había producido en ningún otro reino vasallo). Que la profanación del lugar sagrado se debió al apoyo que vino a brindar al bando de los judíos “asimilados” (aculturizados, diríamos hoy día), enfrentado en una guerra civil tácita con la facción tradicionalista judía.

Los prohelenos (conocidos como tobíades) habían sido expulsados de Siria poco antes por los judíos proegipcios, liderados por el sacerdote Onías.

Según esta versión, Antíoco sometió a Jerusalén por salvaguardar su poder en la zona de la influencia del egipcio Ptolomeo. De esta manera favorecía a sus aliados cuyos vínculos con la ortodoxia judía se habían desfigurado. Hasta el punto de aplaudir las decisiones reales de prohibir la circuncisión y sacrificar cerdos en el altar del Templo.

Leer más: El milagro de la vacuna de Janucá. Por Jorge Rozemblum

No sólo eso. El propio Talmúd sugiere que Janucá es una fiesta dedicada al solsticio de invierno. Cuenta cómo el primer hombre, Adán, entró en pánico al ver ponerse el sol por primera vez en su vida. Como si el mundo se fuese a acabar tras su único día de vida.

Según el relato, al inicio del primer invierno ayunó durante ocho día. Luego, cuando empezó a percibir que los días volvían a alargarse, lo festejó otros ocho días. Sin embargo, al comienzo del segundo invierno ya le quedó claro que ése era el orden natural: una lucha cíclica de la luz contra las tinieblas, a las que sólo se puede vencer con el fuego, como el de los candelabros que hemos de encender durante ocho anocheceres seguidos para recordarnos cómo vencer al temor de Adán y constatar que nuestra misión es fabricar luminarias para soportar tiempos oscuros, y mantener encendida la antorcha de la misma libertad que guio a los macabeos.

Shabat shalom y Jag Janucá Sameaj (Feliz Janucá)

Jorge Rozemblum

Director de Radio Sefarad

www.radiosefarad.com

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