Dunash Ben Labrat y los piyutím de Sefarad. Por Jorge Rozemblum

Dunash_ha-Levi_ben_Labrat
Dunash_ha-Levi_ben_Labrat

Dunash Ben Labrat fue un destacado poeta judío del siglo X, nacido posiblemente en Fez (actualmente Marruecos), discípulo en Babilonia de Saadia Gaón e impulsor de la gramática hebrea y el piyút (poema devocional), sentando las bases de una Edad Dorada de las letras en Al-Andalus, el califato musulmán instalado en Córdoba, adonde llegó desde oriente y estuvo bajo la protección del poderoso dignatario judío de la corte omeya, el jienense Hasday Ibn Shaprut,  de quien fue secretario.

Como poeta en lengua hebrea, destacó especialmente por ser el primero en adaptar la métrica del árabe al hebreo. La poesía árabe tradicional se basada en la  distinción entre vocales cortas y largas, diferencia que no existe en hebreo, pero que Ben Labrat sustituyó por el “timbre” de las vocales, estableciendo las bases de una nueva métrica hebrea que alcanzaría gran difusión en la poesía hebrea medieval. Introdujo también en la lírica hebrea la estructura de la qasida árabe, una forma poética propia de la Arabia anterior al Islam, con poemas de más de 50 versos e incluso más de 100, más tarde adoptada también por los persas.

Las innovaciones de Dunash Ben Labrat fueron objeto de numerosas críticas en su época, ya que afectaban a los piyutím (plural de piyút. Es una palabra hebrea originaria de la misma raíz del griego clásico que poesía), un género de carácter litúrgico cuya tradición estaba muy arraigada.

Leer más: Jaén: apogeo y decadencia de la aljama judía. Por Jorge Rozemblum

Fue criticado sobre todo por los discípulos de Menajem ben Saruc, quienes le acusaban de corromper la lengua hebrea con sus innovaciones procedentes del árabe.

Algunos de sus poemas han sido incorporados a la liturgia judía, como las canciones Dror Yikrá y Dvai Hasair.

El mismísimo Salomón ibn Gabirol se refirió a él como el más importante poeta de su tiempo.

Como gramático, su obra más importante son las Tshubot (Respuestas), un libro en el que critica duramente la principal obra del citado Ben Saruc, Majbéret (Cuaderno). Lo hio por razones tanto filológicas como religiosas, ya que Dunash defendía la ortodoxia frente a Ben Saruc, cuya obra estaba influida por el caraísmo, una corriente religiosa judía que reconoce a la Biblia (Tanaj) como única autoridad religiosa, a diferencia del judaísmo rabínico, que considera la Torá oral (Shebeal pé) codificada en el Talmúd y otros libros, como interpretaciones autoritarias.

Leer más: La Shoá y el impacto del sufrimiento. Por Jorge Rozemblum

Dunash dedicó su mencionado libro al nasí (príncipe o máximo representante  de los judíos) de España y principal protector suyo, Hasday Ibn Shaprut, en un poema laudatorio que es el primer ejemplo de su adaptación al hebreo de la citada métrica árabe.

En el mismo libro, Ben Labrat introdujo por primera vez en la gramática hebrea nociones como la distinción entre verbos transitivos e intransitivos; O entre raíces fuertes y débiles, además de ser el primero en hacer una lista de verbos según sus raíces de tres letras.

No sólo Ben Saruc y sus seguidores lo condenaron por usar el metro y la gramática árabes en el estudio del idioma hebreo y por temas de filosofía judía sobre los cuales estaban en desacuerdo. Abraham Ibn Ezra también escribió una respuesta a su trabajo. A estos desafíos les respondió Yehudi ben Sheshet, uno de los estudiantes de Dunash. Él escribió una obra en defensa de su maestro que se oponía firmemente a todos sus detractores. Siglos después, la obra de Ben Labrat seguía siendo objeto de debate. Por ejemplo, Rabeinu Tam, nieto de Rashi, intentó mediar entre ambas escuelas de pensamiento. Por su parte, Rab Joseph Kimhi, padre del notable gramático rab David Kimhi (conocido como RaDaK), apoyó las posiciones de Dunash. Sin embargo, muchas de las cuestiones planteadas hace más de diez siglos aún no se han resuelto hoy. De todas maneras su figura es recordada como el poeta y gramático que descubrió muchos de los principales problemas de la lengua hebrea.

Jorge Rozemblum

Director de Radio Sefarad

www.radiosefarad.com

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