Dieta saludable (Parte 1): Por Dr. David Sznajderhaus

dieta-saludable-alimentacion-prevencion-de-enfermedades
dieta-saludable-alimentacion-prevencion-de-enfermedades

¿Qué papel juega la alimentación en la prevención de enfermedades?

PRIMERA PARTE

Una alimentación correcta, variada y completa, permite por un lado que nuestro cuerpo funcione con normalidad y por otro, previene o al menos reduce el riesgo de padecer ciertas alteraciones o enfermedades a corto y largo plazo. Basta con recordar el impacto que tienen en nuestra sociedad las llamadas «enfermedades de la civilización»: hipertensión, obesidad, diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares, anorexia y bulimia, e incluso se vio que ciertos tipos de cáncer se relacionan con una alimentación desequilibrada, aunque no se puede afirmar que hay una relación directa de causa-efecto.

En la actualidad, no se investiga solamente el consumo de energía y nutrientes (proteínas, grasas e hidratos de carbono, vitaminas, minerales y agua). También  otros componentes no nutritivos de los alimentos que se comportan como elementos protectores frente a estas y otras enfermedades. Como lo son las fibras y los antioxidantes naturales, presentes fundamentalmente en los vegetales.

En esta dieta es primordial el consumo de cereales y sus derivados (pasta, arroz, pan); Además de legumbres, frutas y frutos secos, verduras y hortalizas, con buenas cantidades de pescado, menores de aves, huevos y derivados lácteos y aún más reducidas proporciones de carnes rojas y sus derivados. Estos alimentos se condimentan habitualmente con aceite de oliva que aumenta el llamado buen colesterol o HDL, y evita la oxidación del llamado mal colesterol o LDL, principal responsable de la formación de placas en venas y arterias.

Leer más: Aceite: oro líquido para la salud. Por David Sznajderhaus

La fibra dietética ejerce otros dos efectos relevantes en la reducción del riesgo de cáncer. Todas las dietas contienen compuestos potencialmente carcinogénicos (que pueden causar cáncer) que al mezclarse con la fibra ya no pueden ser reabsorbidos en el cuerpo, y por tanto no pueden afectar a las células intestinales. Además, las bacterias del intestino fermentan una parte de la fibra dietética. Parte de los productos de este metabolismo bacteriano ayudan a evitar que se multipliquen las células por lo que proporcionan mayor protección frente al desarrollo del cáncer de intestino.

La fibra soluble también es beneficiosa en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus. Disminuye la velocidad de absorción de hidratos de carbono de los alimentos ingeridos, evitando elevaciones bruscas del nivel de glucosa en sangre después de comer. Alimentos ricos en fibra soluble tomados conjuntamente con alimentos que contienen azúcares de absorción rápida reducen la velocidad global de absorción de azúcares de la comida. Por lo tanto permiten incluir mayor variedad de alimentos en la dieta del diabético.

Dr. David Sznajderhaus (www.docterapi.com)

Médico  MN 70.630

Especialista en Trastornos de la Alimentación

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