Cervicalgia. Por Dr. David Sznajderhaus

cervicalgia-dolor-producido-en-el-cuello
cervicalgia-dolor-producido-en-el-cuello

La cervicalgia es el dolor producido en el cuello. Se origina normalmente como consecuencia de una patología ósea, articular, muscular, o bien por la combinación de varias de ellas.

Causas y Tipos

Agudas: producidas de forma repentina, sin causa inicialmente sospechada ni aparente, como por ejemplo tortícolis.

Crónicas: permanentes en el tiempo (artrosis, hernia de disco, cifosis, fibromialgia).
Psicosomáticas: producidas por estados propios de ansiedad o stress, en que el paciente manifiesta muchos síntomas que el médico no puede verificarle.
Por hernia discal: debido a las contracturas de la musculatura cervical que conforman uno de los síntomas de esta patología que no son las más frecuentes en el caso de la columna cervical.

Traumáticas: por traumatismos directos, o indirectos tras accidente de automóvil en que tras un frenazo brusco la cabeza reacciona con un movimiento de vaivén violento (síndrome del latigazo cervical).

Anomalías de la columna cervical: por rectificaciones de la columna cervical.
Cervicobraquialgia: es el dolor cervical irradiado a uno o ambos brazos, antebrazos o dedos, generando también hormigueos en los dedos, pérdida de fuerza, por compresión de las raíces nerviosas que pasan entre las vértebras.

Síntomas

Los síntomas que pueden aparecer y que varían en función de la mayor o menor gravedad del origen de la cervicalgia en cuestión, son:

– Dolor muscular.

– Contracturas musculares.
– Impotencia funcional por el dolor y las contracturas musculares que existen.

– Dolores y hormigueos irradiados a brazos, antebrazos o dedos.

-Cefalea, por la compresión que ejercen las contracturas musculares sobre vasos y nervios, imposibilitando el normal desarrollo sanguíneo (se reduce el aporte de oxígeno) y nervioso.

– Sensaciones de vértigo, náuseas y hasta vómitos (aunque también pueden deberse a problemas de oído, vista, tensión arterial; para ello el médico especialista debe distinguir de donde provienen).

Diagnóstico

El médico realiza el examen físico en busca de contracturas musculares, así como una valoración de la movilidad de las extremidades superiores para comprobar si existe compromiso de las raíces nerviosas. Con las radiografías y/o resonancia, se determina finalmente el origen de las cervicalgias. Si en las imágenes no se evidencia ninguna causa, debemos pensar que el origen radica en problemas musculares por sobreesfuerzo, malas posturas, tensiones laborales o familiares que provocan mayor tensión  muscular.

Leer más: Dieta saludable (Parte 1): Por Dr. David Sznajderhaus
Tratamiento

Es esencialmente conservador, salvo cuando el dolor sea insoportable en casos de hernia discal, pudiéndose recurrir al tratamiento quirúrgico.

La kinesioterapia es la mejor opción y en casa, la aplicación de calor local.

-El masajes con movilizaciones pasivas, está contraindicado en casos de hernia discal.

-Evitar las malas posturas, cabeza muy baja (costureras), tomar el teléfono entre hombro y oreja, dormir con almohada que no se adapte a la anatomía del cuello.

Ante el primer síntoma es conveniente consultar y no hacer tratamientos caseros o pensar, ya se va a pasar. Tomado a tiempo, este problema se soluciona rápidamente.

Dr. David Sznajderhaus (www.docterapi.com)

Médico MN 70.630

Médico Deportólogo

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