Las palabras en Idish que deberías saber y no olvidar

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40-palabras-del-idioma-idish-que-deberias-saber

El idioma idish es una maravillosa fuente de expresiones, especialmente, de palabras cariñosas (y, por supuesto, cumplidos e insultos). Tal vez te sorprendas de cuánto idish ya sabes pero, también, de cuántas palabras conocidas significan algo totalmente diferente en idish, aunque cabe señalar que no existe una traducción u ortografía aceptadas universalmente.

La historia del idish es la historia de las comunidades judías ashkenazis, aquellas que se asentaron en Europa central durante los siglos que siguieron a la huida de los judíos de la tierra de Israel

En los años 30’s, el idish se hablaba por más de 10 millones de personas pero, para 1945, el 75% de ellas había desaparecido. Hoy en día, el idish es el idioma de más de 100 periódicos, revistas, estaciones de radio y sitios web.

Estas son las palabras mas conocidas
  1. Baleboste: Una buena ama de casa; una mujer que está a cargo de su hogar y que se asegurará de que lo recuerdes.
  2. Bissel o bisl: Un poquito.
  3. Bubbe o bobe: Significa abuela. Bobeshi es la forma de cariño, y bubele es una palabra similar, aunque no se encuentra en los diccionarios idish.
  4. Bupkes: Bubkes o bobkes puede relacionarse con la palabra polaca para “frijoles”, pero en realidad significa “popó de cabra” o “popó de caballo”. Generalmente la utilizan los judíos estadounidenses para referirse a algo “trivial, sin valor, sin sentido, una cantidad ridícula”- menos que nada, por así decirlo. “Después de tanto trabajo, obtuve bupkes”.
  5. Chutzpah: Arrogancia extrema, persuasión. En inglés, generalmente denota valentía o confianza pero, entre los hablantes de idish, no es un cumplido.
  6. Feh: Una expresión de disgusto o desaprobación; es representativa del sonido que se hace al escupir.
  7. Glitch o glitsh: Literalmente “resbalar”, “patinar” o “caer en picada”. Es el origen de la frase estadounidense “un problema menor o error”.
  8. Gornisht: Más educada que bupkes, también implica un fuerte sentido de nada.
  9. Goy: Un no-judío, un gentil. Igual que en hebreo, un gentil es un goy, y muchos gentiles son goyim. El adjetivo es “goyish”. Un ejemplo sería: “Ponerle mayonesa al sándwich de pastrami es goyish”.
  10. Kibbitz: En idish, se pronuncia kibets, y se relaciona con la palabra hebrea “kibutz” o “colectividad”, pero también puede significar una broma verbal, la cual, a final de cuentas, es una actividad colectiva.
  11. Klutz o klots: Literalmente, significa “un bloque de madera”, por lo que generalmente se usa con una persona densa, tonta o torpe. (Ver schlemiel).
  12. Kosher: Algo que es aceptable para los judíos ortodoxos, especialmente, comida. La comida que los judíos ortodoxos no comen- puerco, mariscos, etc.- es taref. En inglés, cuando escuches algo que te parezca sospechoso, podrías decir “Eso no me suena muy kosher”.
Leer más: Llega a la Argentina el Festival de Cocina Israelí

13. Kvetsh: En el inglés popular, significa “quejarse o hacer berrinche” pero en idish, literalmente significa “apretar o exprimir”, como si se tratara de un zapato de la talla incorrecta. Te recuerda a ciertos quejumbrosos, ¿cierto? Pero también se utilizar en algunas páginas web idish para “dar clic”.

14. Maven: Se pronuncia “meiven” y significa “experto”, aunque se usa de forma sarcástica.

15. Mazel tov: Literalmente, “buena suerte” (bueno, en realidad, “buena constelación”) pero es una felicitación por algo que ha sucedido y no un deseo por algo que podría pasar en el futuro. Cuando alguien se casa o tiene un hijo o se gradúa de la universidad, esto es lo que debes decirle. También puede utilizarse sarcásticamente para decir “ya era hora”.

16. Mentsh: Una persona honorable, decente y auténtica; alguien que te ayuda cuando lo necesitas. Puede ser hombre, mujer o niño.

17. Mishegas: Demencia o locura. Un meshugener es un hombre loco. Si quieres insultar a alguien, puedes preguntarle “¿Duele estar loco?”.

18. Mispocheh, mishpokhe o mishpucha: Significa “familia”.

19. Nosh o nash: Mordisquear; una pequeña botana.20.

20. Nu: Una palabra común que necesita una respuesta. Sinónimo de “¿Y?”, “Y, ¿luego?”, “¿Entonces?”, “¿Hola?” o “¿Qué hay?”.

21. Oy vey: Exclamación de consternación, dolor o exasperación. La frase “oy vey iz mir” significa “Ay, pobre de mí”. “¡Oy gevalt!” es casi lo mismo pero expresa miedo, shock o asombro. Esta expresión es la que deberías decir si te das cuenta de que estás a punto de ser atropellado.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Leer más: Sergio Edelstein, protagonista del ciclo de entrevistas de Vis á Vis         

22. Plotz o plats: Literalmente, explotar de enojo; colapsar.

23. Shalom: Significa “gran paz” y no significa más que “Hola, ¿cómo estás?”.

24. Shlep: Arrastrar tradicionalmente algo que realmente no necesitas; cargar algo sin ganas.

25. Schlemiel: Una persona torpe, inepta; similar al klutz. El tipo de persona a la que siempre se le cae la sopa en la camisa.

26.Schlock: Barato, mal hecho, inferior, chafa.

27. Shlimazel: Alguien con muy mala suerte.

28. Shmendrik: Una persona estúpida, imbécil. Se popularizó en The Last Unicorn y Welcome Back Kotter.

29. Shmaltzy: Excesivamente sentimental, ridículo, efusivo, halagador, exagerado. Proveniente de shmaltz, que significa grasa de pollo. Esta palabra describe muchas de las películas más famosas de Hollywood.

30. Shmooze: Conversar, platicar de nada en particular. Pero, en las fiestas de Hollywood, las personas generalmente lo hacen con gente a la que quieren impresionar.

31. Schmuck: Usualmente se utiliza como insulto para alguien que acaba de hacer el ridículo. Es importante NUNCA usarla delante de invitados o desconocidos, ya que hace referencia a una parte de la anatomía masculina.

32. Spiel: Un largo y aburrido discurso de ventas. Proviene del alemán.

33. Shikse: Una mujer no-judía. En demasiadas ocasiones se utiliza de forma derogatoria. Tiene la connotación de “joven y hermosa”. Un shagetz o sheygets significa un niño no-judío.

34. Shmutz: Suciedad- sólo un poco, no un completo desastre.

35. Shtick: Algo por lo que ya eres conocido; la rutina de un comediante, una escena de un actor; un truco generalmente hecho para atraer la atención hacia ti.

36. Tchatchke: Adornitos, figuras, juguetitos, artículos coleccionables.

37. Tsuris o tsores: Graves problemas. Plagas de piojos, moscos, moscas, langostas, granizo, muerte… esas plagas realmente eran

38. Tuches: Trasero, pompas, parte trasera.

39. Yente: Mujer metiche o chismosa. En un punto, en la alta sociedad, los padres solían ponerles este nombre a sus hijas pero se ganó el significado de “mujer demonio”. A partir de El Violinista en el Tejado Yente, la gente usualmente cree que yente significa casamentera.

40. Yiddisher: Persona inteligente. Literalmente, significa “cabeza judía”.

Fuente: Daily Writing Tips

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