El recuerdo de Shimon Peres en el sexto aniversario de su fallecimiento

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Shimon Peres Z`L falleció el 28 de septiembre de 2016 en el Centro Médico Sheba, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Era uno de los últimos sobrevivientes de la generación de los padres fundadores del Estado Judío. Hizo más que nadie para cimentar el formidable poderío militar israelí y luego trabajó incansablemente para instalar una paz duradera entre Israel y sus vecinos árabes.

Fue dos veces primer ministro de Israel, ministro de Defensa, de Finanzas, de Transporte, canciller y, hasta 2014, también presidente, Peres no abandonó la escena pública de Israel en los últimos 70 años.

Dirigió la formación de la industria para la defensa de su país, negoció tratados armamentísticos cruciales con Francia y Alemania y fue el principal impulsor del desarrollo de armas nucleares en Israel. Pero también fue inclaudicable en su búsqueda de un entendimiento con el mundo árabe, una búsqueda que en los últimos años hizo en soledad, ya que la sociedad israelí perdió interés, sobre todo después de los levantamientos de la «primavera árabe».

Noveno Presidente, ex Primer Ministro y Premio Nobel de la Paz, la impronta de su imagen, y con ello la fuerza de su legado, ha trascendido los límites de su propia nación.

Leer más: Shimon Peres Z’L: el paisano de mi papá. Por Gustavo Szpigiel

En el Ministerio de Defensa (1948-1965)

Shimon Perez comenzó como líder juvenil en el movimiento obrero sionista. Se unió a las Fuerzas de Defensa de Israel hacia finales de 1940. Fue Director General del Ministerio de Defensa a los 29 años. Desempeñó un papel importante en las relaciones diplomáticas entre Israel y Francia.

Siguiendo la política de Ben Gurión, mejoró las relaciones con Alemania Occidental a pesar de la sombra del Holocausto. Ayudó en la relación de seguridad con Alemania, comenzando las conversaciones celebradas en 1957 con el ministro de Defensa de Alemania Occidental, Franz Joseph Strauss, logrando que Alemania suministrara a Israel tanques y otros equipos fabricados en los Estados Unidos.

En 1959 Shimon Peres fue elegido miembro de la Knéset y viceministro de Defensa. Una de sus principales tareas fue mejorar los lazos de seguridad con los Estados Unidos.

Como Ministro de Defensa, 1977-1974
En 1965 Shimon Peres siguió a Ben Gurión cuando dejó su partido, Mapai y comenzó la facción de Rafi (la lista de los trabajadores) un partido de centro izquierda. En 1968 este fue uno de los tres partidos que emergieron para formar el Partido Laborista.

Durante la renuncia de Golda Meir en 1974 sostuvo una batalla electoral contra Yitzhak Rabin, apoyada por el partido gubernamental. La victoria de Rabin por un estrecho margen lo obligó a nombrarlo Ministro de Defensa.

 Primer Ministro del Gobierno de la Unidad Nacional, 1984-1986

Posteriormente a las elecciones de 1984 se formó un Gobierno de Unidad Nacional, en el cual el cargo de primer ministro fue rotativo, en primer lugar Shimon Peres sirvió durante dos años y después Yitzhak Shamir del Likud encabezó el gobierno.

El acuerdo de coalición especificaba que cada partido tendría un número igual de ministros y las decisiones políticas y de seguridad serían tomadas por un gabinete de diez miembros. Como Primer Ministro, lidió contra graves dificultades económicas y con la Primera Guerra del Líbano, que tuvo un alto precio en bajas israelíes. Después de una lucha pública, Peres propuso el retiro del Líbano en tres etapas, a excepción de una zona de seguridad cerca de la frontera.

Durante la misma fracción de tiempo, el gobierno tuvo que hacer frente a una crisis económica e hiperinflación que alcanzó el 400% anual.

Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores, 1988-1986

En 1986 Shimon Peres renunció como Primer Ministro y fue reemplazado por Shamir. Ocupó su lugar como canciller y viceprimer ministro.

Durante su gobierno como Primer Ministro estuvo dispuesto a aceptar una conferencia internacional con el rey Hussein de Jordania, para abrir negociaciones directas con los vecinos árabes de Israel. El 11 de abril de 1987 Peres firmó un acuerdo con Hussein en Londres, pero no fue aprobado por Shamir y el gobierno.

Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores en el gobierno de Yitzhak Rabin y Primer Ministro y Ministro de Defensa tras el asesinato de Rabin, 1992-1996

En junio de 1992, el Partido Laborista dirigido por Yitzhak Rabin ganó las elecciones para el 13avo Congreso (Knéset). Shimon Peres nuevamente se convirtió en ministro de Relaciones Exteriores y lideró las negociaciones que resultaron en el Acuerdo de Oslo con los palestinos. Por su papel en el acuerdo, Peres, Rabin y Yasser Arafat recibieron el Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1994. Ese mismo año se firmó también el Tratado de Paz con Jordania.

El 4 de noviembre de 1995, Yitzhak Rabin, fue asesinado, entonces Shimon Peres formó un gobierno en el que también ocupó la Cartera de Defensa. En la primavera de 1996 Israel fue atacado por una ola de terrorismo palestino, sin embargo su creencia en el Proceso de Paz no vaciló. Después de una cumbre contra el terrorismo celebrada en Sharm el-Sheik en marzo de 1996, se reunió con el presidente Clinton en Washington y habló en una conferencia de la AIPAC sobre el legado de Yitzhak Rabin.

En junio de 1996 Biniamín Netanyahu fue elegido Primer Ministro en elecciones directas bajo la nueva ley y el Likud ganó por mayoría en la 14º Knéset.

Shimon Peres, 1996-2016

Desde 1996 en encabezó la oposición. En el gobierno formado por Ehud Barak en 1999, ofició de ministro y en el gobierno de la Unidad Nacional de Ariel Sharon fue nuevamente nombrado ministro de Relaciones Exteriores.

Después de unirse al partido Kadima de Sharon, fue elegido presidente en 2007.

FotografíaKobi Gideon, GPO, fotos y texto extraído de los Archivos del Estado de Israel

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